Essay on Poverty, Lack Opportunity And Infrastructure

Essay on Poverty, Lack Opportunity And Infrastructure

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Not all humans are born equal – more than 800 million people across the globe are currently living in extreme poverty, surviving on less than $1.25 a day, and there are currently 48 countries listed as a least developed country (LDC) by the United Nations Office of the High Representative for The Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS): countries that have a gross national income (GNI) per capita less than $1,035, human asset index (HAI) less than 60, meaning high infant mortality rate and percentage of the population undernourished, and low secondary school enrollment ratio and adult literacy rate, together with an economic vulnerability index (EVI) higher than 36 ("United"; "UN"; "Criteria"). Citizens of these undeveloped countries, the so-called Third World, lack opportunity and infrastructure to improve their quality of life. One of the Millennium Development Goals established by the UN in the wake of the 3rd millennium is to “eradicate extreme poverty and hunger”, and it has been fruitful so far, “more than 1 billion people have been lifted out of extreme poverty since 1990”, which is half the total amount ("United"). However, the people remaining in extreme poverty have been proven more difficult to reach, with elusive access to “good schools, healthcare, electricity, safe water and other critical services”, and the availability of such benefits determined by “socioeconomic status, gender, ethnicity, and geography”, there seems to be a long road ahead to truly eliminate poverty and bring development to those in need ("Poverty"). This paper aims to ultimately discuss the solutions to underdevelopment in the poor areas of the world, by using two texts: economist...


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...ot get their fair share of economic rewards. With an astronomical number of debt and most of the money flowing to the “one percent”, is the U.S.’s inclusive institutions any different than the extractive institutions described by Acemoglu and Robinson? It seems both theories in Why Nations Fail and The Bottom Billion only build upon an existing stereotype – that poor countries are poor because they fail to become “one of us”, fail to follow the mainstream Capitalism and Democracy. We must not forget many empires throughout history were built upon extractive institutions and had their glory, and that Capitalism in fact runs on cheap labor and exploits towards poor countries. Both theories fail to mention what kind of interaction does the Global North has with the South, and whether existing rich countries could possibly be a cause to the existence of underdevelopment.

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