Land constraint and the resulting high land prices have often been cited as major impediment factors when it comes to the deployment of solar PV in Singapore. As shown in Figure X below, Singapore’s average per square meter land prices ranks as the second highest in Asia. The following assessment on land space, therefore, excludes ground-mounted and utility-scale solar on the basis that it is simply impractical for facility owners to bear the exorbitant land leasing cost.
Figure X: Square meter prices in US$
Source: Global Property Guide, 2016.
Table X: Potential land area for solar PV
Space type Area type Total area (sq mi) Area utilization factor Net-usable area (sq mi)
Rooftop Public housing 5.41 0.5 2.71
Residential, commercial and industrial 16.22 0.6 9.73
Facades Upper 5 stories 3.86 0.4 1.54
Infrastructure Railway tracks 0.19 1.0 0.19
Total usable area 14.17
Total area in Singapore 277.6
Source: X, 2013.
Table X, which is compiled based on results from a series of studies conducted by the National University of Singapore (NUS) and the Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), shows the possible area size for solar PV installations in Singapore. The calculation of the total usable area is as follows. First and foremost, a manual analysis of build-up area reveals the total area footprint of buildings to be ~21.62 square miles, with 25% (~5.41 square miles) belonging to high-rise public housing blocks and 75% belonging to residential, commercial and industrial buildings (~16.22 square miles). It should be noted that 25% of public housing blocks by itself present a tremendous opportunity for future solar power ramp-up: in 2015, the total household installations, which included both pub...
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B1 = Bmin = Z+X-Y
where Z = Stored battery energy at the beginning of dispatching period (kWh)
X = Maximum energy output of solar PV (kWh)
Y = Capacity rating of battery (kWh)
followed by the second one, B2 = Bmax = Z, at a higher price.
This strategy would ensure the first bid to be almost surely taken, while the subsequent ones will create opportunities for further system revenue. The requirements of this capacity design are that the battery must work continuously and the solar PV can never be disconnected from the grid. If this is not the case, it is found that occasional solar PV disconnection could significantly reduce the battery capacity requirement and most importantly, cost. As shown in Table X below, if a solar PV disconnection probability as diminutive as 0.1% is allowed, the battery capacity requirement could be substantially reduced by 16%.
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