Post-Translational Modifications Essay

Post-Translational Modifications Essay

Length: 2682 words (7.7 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Post-translational modifications have a profound influence on the structure and function of many proteins. Dystroglycan (DG) is an example of a membrane protein that requires extensive post-translational processing in order to function as an extracellular matrix receptor. It is comprised of two subunits, an extracellular -DG subunit and a transmembrane -DG subunit, which are derived by cleavage of a polypeptide encoded by DAG1 (1). The apparent molecular mass (Mr) of -DG as assessed by SDS-PAGE varies from 120- to 200-kDa, due to developmental and tissue-specific post-translational modification of an ~40-kDa core polypeptide (1, 2). Notably, in both muscle and brain, -DG serves as a receptor for extracellular matrix ligands that contain a laminin-G domain—including laminin (1), agrin (3), perlecan (4), and neurexins (5)—and this interaction depends on an unidentified post-translational modification on -DG. -DG is also known as the cellular receptor for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), Lassa fever virus (LFV), and clade C New World arenaviruses (6, 7). Although the binding sites for LCMV and LFV on -DG have not yet been identified, they are thought to overlap with the modification that is recognized by laminin (8, 9). Mutations in six known or putative glycosyltransferase genes—POMT1 (10), POMT2 (11), POMGnT1 (12), fukutin (13), FKRP (14), and LARGE (15) —have been identified in patients with congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) classified as “secondary -dystroglycanopathy”. These disorders cover a spectrum of abnormalities affecting the brain, eye, and skeletal muscle, and show a dramatic gradient of phenotypic severity that ranges from the most devastating in Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS; OMIM# 236670), to...


... middle of paper ...


...e in vertebrates. Glycoproteins in the cell wall of yeasts and fungi are known to bear phosphodiester-linked glycans that are generated by a process involving phosphorylation on the C6 position of mannose (28). It is interesting that -DG, which is well conserved as an epithelial cell-surface protein from mammals to lower vertebrates, is likewise modified by this ancient type of cell surface glycosylation. A recent study has shown that the most severe form of CMD—WWS—is a genetically heterogeneous disease. Moreover, only 40% of WWS cases are explained by mutations in known CMD-causative genes (POMT1, POMT2, POMGNT1, FCMD, FKRP and LARGE) (28). It is quite likely that a defect in the phosphorylation of O-linked mannose results in severe CMD, and thus our findings provide a new target to be used for the discovery of mutations in novel genes responsible for WWS.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Tattoos, Body Piercings, and Other Body Modifications Essay

- “The colors and pictures we apply to our skin communicate our values and aspirations as well as our hopes and personal histories. Even when we adopt the “natural look” and don't adorn our skin at all, we are making a social statement. Our skin talks even when we don't; it is not a neutral canvas.” (Jablonski, 164) We as a species are obsessed with our appearance and are equally preoccupied with altering it to our own varied desires. Each person wants nothing less than perfection, but each has an unique idea of what that means....   [tags: body modification practices]

Powerful Essays
2758 words (7.9 pages)

The Trend Of Body Modifications Essay

- The trend of body modifications including getting tattoos, piercings or plastic surgery has become very popular in our society today. The increase demand of any type of body modifications makes me really curious as to why people change their physical appearance temporarily or permanently. From what I already know, celebrities and idols get tattoos or plastic surgery to appear a certain way to the general public. They are seen as more attractive to the public eye and create a trend as to how male and females in society should look....   [tags: Self-esteem, Bullying, Body modification]

Powerful Essays
734 words (2.1 pages)

Translational Activity of Elongation Factor Tu Essays

- We examined the translational activity of EF-Tu by using the PURE system, in vitro translation system derived from E.coli that was contains all the components essential for translation (17). Purified of wild-type EF-Tu from Synechocystis that had been treated with various concentrations of H2O2 were added to the translation system, which constructed without EF-Tu, and observed the synthesis of DHFR. The results revealed that the synthesis of DHFR was significantly decreased upon the increasing of H2O2 concentration (Fig....   [tags: oligomer, oxidizing, e.coli]

Powerful Essays
1684 words (4.8 pages)

The Types Of Body Modifications Essays

- In American culture today, bodies that are covered in an abundance of tattoos and piercings, scarification, or any other method that grotesquely modifies the ‘natural’ body, are often regarded as vulgar. While altering the body with material objects, especially in excess amounts, would seem outrageous, in contrast people who get braces, consume medicine or unnatural food into the body, and shave body hair, are alterations considered appropriate. While it is understood that some of these modifications are endorsed because of hygienic issues and intention of enhancement of the body, it still does not coincide as to why other methods are routinely debased and others supported....   [tags: Tattoo, Body modification, John F. Kennedy]

Powerful Essays
1788 words (5.1 pages)

Genetic Modifications : The Era Of Change Essay

- Genetic modifications are a must in the era of change. Obama once stated in a speech that “Change will not come if we wait for some other person or some other time. We are the ones we’ve been waiting for. We are the change that we seek” (Obama). The science behind genetics has been growing at a rapid pace. Geneticists are really taking the bull by the horns to help the human race better themselves. By genetically modifying, or altering plants, humans, and other organisms, scientists can prevent diseases and cure sicknesses....   [tags: DNA, Genetics, Gene, Genetic engineering]

Powerful Essays
1867 words (5.3 pages)

Essay on What is Translational Bioinformatics?

- Translational bioinformatics is a newly emerging field of informatics which defines as the development and application of informatics methods to optimize the transformation of increasingly massive biomedical data into practicable knowledge and novel technologies which can improve human health and diseases. There is a tremendous progress in scientific discovery since the foundation of double helix structure. However, it has not translated much into practical health benefit and has become a rate-limiting step for clinical application....   [tags: data, human health, diseases]

Powerful Essays
1735 words (5 pages)

Are We in a Post-Modern Age? Essay

- This paper answers the question: Are We in a Post-Modern Age. Post-Modernism can be described as a particular style of thought. It is a concept that correlates the emergence of new features and types of social life and economic order in a culture; often called modernization, post-industrial, consumer, media, or multinational capitalistic societies. In Modernity, we have the sense or idea that the present is discontinuous with the past, that through a process of social, technological, and cultural change (either through improvement, that is, progress, or through decline) life in the present is fundamentally different from life in the past....   [tags: Post-Modernity]

Powerful Essays
2824 words (8.1 pages)

Essay on Modifications of Bowlby's Attachment Theory

- Modifications of Bowlby's Attachment Theory Bowlby's original theory of attachment was concerned with the bonding relationship that develops between an infant and his primary caregiver. He believed the process of bonding to have a biological basis as the genes of those infants who successfully sought the protection of a caregiver (from predators and other dangers) will have survived and been passed on. Bowlby also formulated the Maternal Deprivation hypothesis (1953) which is associated with his theory of attachment and resulted from a study on delinquent boys....   [tags: Papers]

Powerful Essays
1719 words (4.9 pages)

Post Falls Dam Essay

- For over 100 years, the Post Falls Dam has served the North Idaho area in a variety of ways. Arguably one of the greatest impacts in the north Idaho region. To fully understand the history of the dam, it is important to start at the beginning, before the dam was built, before the Schitus’umsh people (Coeur d’Alene Tribe) lived on site, even before there was a Spokane River or Lake Coeur d’Alene. Before Lake Coeur d’Alene existed in its present state, the St. Joe River ran through the valley of the lake, and was fed by the Coeur d’Alene River....   [tags: Geography, Frederick Post]

Powerful Essays
1240 words (3.5 pages)

Hong Kong Post-colonial Cinema Essay

- The Construction of the ‘Western Other’ in Hong Kong Post-colonial Cinema Hong Kong has always remained a very unique city, one which is said to have ‘a Western past, an Eastern future’. Since its colonisation by the British in the 1860s, it has maintained to a very large extent its Chinese identity and its connection to its Motherland, while at the same time, has frequent contact with the Western world, politically, economically, and culturally. Hong Kong’s unique position has made the city a vibrant international metropolis that acts as a bridge between East and West....   [tags: Post Colonial Hong Kong Culture Essays]

Powerful Essays
4677 words (13.4 pages)