Within a river there are areas known as pools and riffles. The pool is an area of deeper slow moving water, whereas the river is an area of shallow, fast flowing white water. The rocks are also clearly visible at the riffle, but submerged in the pool. A pool is usually found on a meander whereas the riffle is normally seen on the straighter areas of the channel, they tend to be situated very close to one another, forming in sequences. The aim of this investigation is to carry out a field investigation at a pool and riffle and compare the characteristics at these two sites with the objective to state the differences.
The river used for the investigation is a tributary of the River Teme , and known as The Leigh Brook. The River Teme is tributary of The River Severn. The site that was investigated lies in the Knapp and Papermill Reserve, managed by the Worcestershire Wildlife Trust.
Using a tape measure, measure the distance from right bank top to left bank top. Using a peg secure the tape measure in this position. Using another tape measure place it along the river bed from right waters edge to left. This gives the measurement for the wetted perimeter. Using a quickset level note the waters edge and both bank tops. Divide the channel by 3 and using a quickset measure the water surface at these points. At these sites measure the channel bed and water surface 1m downstream and 1m upstream. Next divide the channel by 10 and at each point measure the total water bed, distance across the channel and the velocity. Velocity is measured...
... middle of paper ...
..., Concept Publishing Company, India, Page 131
Leopold. L. (1953), Downstream Change Of Velocity In
Rivers, American Journal of Science, Vol. 251, Page 606-624
Nagle.G, 2000, Advanced Geography, Oxford University Press, Spain, Pages 80-82
Sear. D. (1996), Sediment Transport Processes In Pool-Riffle Sequences. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, 21: 241–262.
Spellman. F, 2000, The Science of Water: Concepts and Applications, Second Edition, CRC Press, Page 76
Richards, K.S., 1978. Simulation of flow geometry in a riffle–pool stream. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 3, 345–354.
Thompson et al., 1998, D.M. Thompson, J.M. Nelson, E.E. Wohl, Interactions between pool geometry and hydraulics, Water Resources. Res., Vol 34, pp. 3673–3681
Wentworth, C.K. (1922) A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments. Journal of Geology, 30, 377–392.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- ... When bromine reacts with organic substances such as ammonia, it forms bromamines – just as chlorine reacts with organic compounds to form chloramines. It is these chloramines in most swimming pools that are responsible for much of the difficulties chlorinated pools entail, producing an unpleasant smell and irritating people’s eyes and skin (in fact it is often these chloramines that people often receive allergic reactions to) and being largely ineffective sanitisers. Bromamines however are quite the opposite, producing very little smell, having minimal impact on skin and eye irritation and retaining the efficacy of the bromine compound.... [tags: pool maintenance, ozone]
1200 words (3.4 pages)
- Since the beginning of time, water has played a key role in societies all over the world. The earliest recorded civilizations have all been found along large river valleys, such as, the Indus River in India and the Yellow River in China. Water is an essential part of life; it does not just sustain the life of all human beings around the globe, but also sustains the life of every living thing known to this Earth. All of the major cities that we know today are surrounded by large river systems that supply its people with the means to survive in that region.... [tags: river valleys, water, pollution, Texas]
1088 words (3.1 pages)
- The Mississippi river is a Powerful and Ancient river that has changed very much over the millennia it’s been around. The Atchafalaya, which is a distributary of the Mississippi river had to be controlled by building dams and levees in the early 60’s and is still being monitored today. The Atchafalaya was beginning to divert the water in the Mississippi river to it and many people in the United States did not want this as it would virtually destroy the port cities along the Mississippi and therefore destroy the United States economy.... [tags: Mississippi River, River, Atchafalaya River]
1113 words (3.2 pages)
- An intricate balance has existed between man and the environment since the evolution of the Homo-sapiens’ species. At times throughout history, human ingenuity and will-power seemed to best nature, such as the transportation of water for miles across land in Roman aqueducts, the circumscribing of the globe by Amerigo Vespucci, or the first flight by the Wright brothers in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina; but although these feats were great, until the last few hundred years, the beast that is nature remained unconquered and undisturbed.... [tags: environment, preservation, Wabash River]
1857 words (5.3 pages)
- Loss and Healing in The River Warren Each of us, in time, will experience a heart-stopping reality - the death or loss of someone or something we love. Maybe it will be of a family member or just a pet we dearly cherished, but the feelings we have are all too real and all too painful. This loss is probably by far the greatest and most severe emotional trauma we can encounter, and the sense of loss and grief that follows is a healthy, natural, and important part of healing ("Death").... [tags: River]
1974 words (5.6 pages)
- The Colorado River is the seventh longest river. In the 1920’s Western states began dividing up the water in the Colorado River by building dams and divert river flow to San Diego, Phoenix, and other large cities in order to supply water to these cities. In the past the river has been known for being a major source of water and electricity. The Colorado River passes through Utah, Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, California, Baja California, and Sonora. During the past decade a drought has been sweeping the Southwest resulting in a lowered river level.... [tags: history, grand river, aqueduct]
1296 words (3.7 pages)
- The Third Bank of the River Confusion, embarrassment, and guilt can all be found throughout João Guimarães Rosa's short story "The Third Bank of the River." Rosa forces the reader to analyze his words and delve deeply into the hidden meanings behind them. Upon first glance, a story unfolds of a father who seemingly abandons his family and chooses to live out the remainder of his life rowing a small boat back and forth along a river. There are circumstances leading up to this behavior, which new insight to the author's psychological meaning.... [tags: Third Bank of the River]
1532 words (4.4 pages)
- Tim O'brien's "On the Rainy River" Tim O'brien's "On the Rainy River" is a true story told by a 41 year old of his life at the age of 21. The fact that O'brien is writing this 20 years later adds a new aspect to the story. He describes himself as a young man with the world in his back pocket. O'brien has just graduated from Macalester College and has a free ride to Harvard. Unfortunately, his storybook world collapses when he receives a draft notice for the Vietnam war, a war that he has "taken a modest stand against"(44) in 1968.... [tags: Tim O'brien On the Rainy River]
674 words (1.9 pages)
- The relationship you have with others often has a direct effect on the basis of your very own personal identity. In the essay "On The Rainy River," the author Tim O'Brien tells about his experiences and how his relationship with a single person had effected his life so dramatically. It is hard for anyone to rely fully on their own personal experiences when there are so many other people out there with different experiences of their own. Sometimes it take the experiences and knowledge of others to help you learn and build from them to help form your own personal identity.... [tags: O'Brien Rainy River Essay Analysis]
1068 words (3.1 pages)
- The Search for Self in Tirra Lirra by the River It has been suggested that Tirra Lirra by the River can be regarded as a novel which aims eventually at a better understanding"2. In my opinion understanding is achieved at two levels in the novel. The first type of understanding is personal and introspective, and is discovered by the central character. The other is societal, achieved through allegory and symbolism, and aimed at the reader. Jessica Anderson aims to develop this dual understanding through the exploration of two main themes: the quest for self-knowledge, and the consequences of gendered societal repression.... [tags: Tirra Lirra by the River Essays]
2805 words (8 pages)