In recent years, we often hear and use the word "ecology", but one can hardly assume that everyone understands him correctly. About even the experts argue what meaning people should invest in this concept. In the meantime, they argue, laymen have realized such ecological minimum: it means - to breathe clean air, drink clean water, eat food without nitrates and glow in the dark. The term "ecology" (from the Greek "oikos" - a house, dwelling place, and "logos" - science) was provided in 1866 by the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel, who introduced it into use to refer to "general science about the organisms and their environment.
But now the concept of "ecology" has already gone far beyond the scope of what to put in it and Ernst Haeckel as specified in the reference books and encyclopedias. Now it is an independent science about the environment (in terms of its interactions with living organisms and, above all people). It nourishes not only and not so much biology, but almost all of Earth science - meteorology, hydrology, oceanography, climatology, geography, geology with the necessary for their physical and mathematical and chemical methods, as well as sociology, psychology and economics. Such an extension of detention of Ecology and offset of accents demanded rapid quantitative growth of humanity, which began to realize the dangers that threaten the entire planet (nuclear disaster, potential greenhouse effect and the like), already encountered in their practice with limited natural resources (including energy) and saw the devastating side effects of irrational economic activity on the environment - environmental disasters like Chernobyl and the Aral Sea. In connection with this modern...
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...ries of Western Europe and parts of Russia because of acid rain is a destruction of forest land.
Currently, environmental pollution has reached a size such that urgent action should be taken. There are three main ways to solve environmental problems. The first is to build sewage treatment plants, to use low-sulfur fuel, destruction and recycling of waste, construction of chimneys height of 200-300 m and more, land reclamation, etc. The second direction of overcoming environmental pollution is the development and application of nature protection ("pure") production technology, the development of working methods of water supply, etc. This route is of particular importance as it not only reduces and prevents environmental pollution. The third way - this is a deeply thoughtful, rational distribution of "dirty" industries that have an adverse impact on the environment.
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