An election is a formal and composed process by vote for electing someone to be in a political office or other positions. It is important to understand the difference between the form and the substance of elections. In some cases electoral are available yet the substance of an election is absent as when voters don 't have a free and authentic decision between no less than two choices. Most countries hold elections in at least the formal sense, yet a lot of them the elections are not competitive (e.g. all but one party may be prohibited to challenge) or the electoral circumstance is in other respects highly compromised.
There are many different types of elections in the Philippines. The president, vice-president, and the senators are elected for a six-year term, while the members of the House of Representatives, governors, vice-governors, members of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan (provincial board members), mayors, vice-mayors, members of the Sangguniang Panlungsod/members of the Sangguniang Bayan (city/municipal councilors), barangay officials, and the members of the Sangguniang Kabataan (youth councilors) are elected to serve for a three-year term.
The Congress or Kongreso has two chambers. As of 2013, The House of Representatives or Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan has 292 seats, of which 80% are contested in single seat electoral districts and 20% are assigned to party-lists as indicated by a modified Hare quota with remainders disregarded and a three-seat cap. These party list seats are only accessible to marginalized and under-represented groups and parties, local parties, and sectoral wings of major parties that represent the marginalized. The Constitution of the Philippines permits the House of Repres...
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...ection was won by Fidel V. Ramos with only 23% of the vote which was the lowest majority in history; It additionally introduced the multi-party system of the Fifth Republic. From there on, no victor has won by means of majority, even though each has had an increasing rate of votes with each succeeding election. The 1998 election was won by Joseph Estrada in what was described as a landslide, getting just shy of 40% of the votes, while second place Jose de Venecia received 16%. The first sitting president to run since 2006 was president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, who had defeated Fernado Poe, Jr and succeeded Estrada atht e outcome of the 2001 EDSA Revolution. Benigno Aquino III had won with 42% of the votes, overcoming Estrada who only received 26% and this was known to be the closest margin in history. From 1986, the ruling party has not won a presidential election.
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