The term party system refers to the organizations, the balance of power and the institutional bases of the country. Though the Founding Fathers, particularly George Washington, warned the nation about becoming a two-party system, America has been a strong two party nation since the 1790s, when the Federalist competed against the Jeffersonian Republicans. In the present days, the two predominant parties are the Democratic and the Republican Parties, but, as mentioned before, this was not always the case. The first party system was constituted in 1790s. The parties competing were the Federalists against the Jeffersonian Republicans. The difference between both parties was set on their economic policies, where the Republicans supported agricultural interests and free trade, while the Federalists were in favor of tariffs that encourage manufacturing and the creation of a national bank. However, after some time, the Federalist Party was dismantled, losing its strength until disappearing. At the same time, the Jeffersonian Republicans evolved until become the Democratic Party.
Democrats were part of the second party system. They faced the Whigs, the successors of the Federalists. The Whig Party policies were basically founded on the disagreement with the Democratic Party. When the conflict over slavery started Whigs and anti-slavery Democrats joined the Republican Party. During the civil war, the Democratic and Republican Parties faced each other for the first tim...
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...re often oriented to the resolution of individual issues, and commonly economically guided. Also, there is another category of interest group composed of American citizens with ties to foreign nations. As an example, we can see the interest group of Jewish Americans; they are particularly concerned with the situation of Israel, and put pressure on governmental authorities in order to create a movement to help this country. A third type of interest groups are those oriented to the defense of human rights and environmental preservation. Unlike the previous groups, these groups of people are not moved by any specific goal besides the genuine interest in their causes. That is, they do not share ethnic or any other relations with the final receivers of their movements. And particularly Green groups, often recur to public demonstrations in order to establish their goals.
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