Pneumonia by definition is the infection of the lung parenchyma. According to the Cleveland Clinic (2010), that despite all of the antibiotics pneumonia remains the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. This paper will compare two types of pneumonia, their causes, presentation, assessment and treatments.
There are three common pathogens that make up 85% of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). These pathogens that cause the typical CAP are Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-sensitive and -resistant strains), Haemophilus influenzae (ampicillin-sensitive and -resistant strains), and Moraxella catarrhalis (all strains penicillin-resistant) (Cunha, Community aquired pneumonia, 2015). Community-acquired pneumonia can be acquired by multiple transmissions which are inhalation or an aspiration of the pathogen, a secondary bacteremia from a distant source, or aspiration pneumonia caused by several different pathogens. There are also several atypical types of CAP and their causes can be either zoonotic or nonzoonotic atypical pathogens. According to Cunha (2015), zoonotic atypical pathogens include Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci (psittacosis), Francisella tularensis (tularemia), and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever). The nonzoonotic atypical pathogens are Legionella species, M pneumoniae, and Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae (Cunha, Community aquired pneumonia, 2015). A diagram of the clinical diagnosis of typical and atypical CAP is included on Table 1.
There is not at this time a single gold standard test that diagnoses pneumonia. The diagnosis is based off of clinical findings, history and many different testing modalities. For typical CAP physical findings ...
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...ed with the specific antimicrobial for that pathogen in order to prevent further antibiotic resistance. 2005 American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) guidelines recommend clinicians start initial empiric antimicrobial coverage based on the clinical severity, the presence of risk factors for multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms, and the time onset of NP, see Table 4 and 5 (Gordon, 2013).
In summary, in both CAP and NP it is very important to take a thorough history and physical, also it is recommended to attempt to find the causative pathogen so that it may be treated appropriately and not expose the patient to more antibiotics then necessary to treat the pneumonia. With MDR organisms and the rising cost of healthcare it is imperative as healthcare providers we get the best possible form of treatment for each individual patient.
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