"PECS is a methodology that uses pictures and other symbols to develop a functional communication system for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the early stages of training, PECS teaches students to exchange a picture of the desired item for the actual item. Next steps in training include learning expansion of vocabulary, including attributes (e.g., “big,” “red”) and commenting (e.g., “I like swinging”).” (Association for Science in Autism Treatment, 2016)
PECS is divided into six phases (Liddle, 2001, p: 392):
Phase 1 teaches the child the physical exchange, i.e. how to pick up, reach and release the picture in order to request a highly motivating item.
Phase 2 teaches the children ‘persistence and &stance’, i.e. how to remove pictures from the communication board and find a communicative partner then make the physical exchange.
Phase 3 teaches the children how to request specific items
Phase 4 introduces sentence structure. The children are taught to sequence two pictures on a sentence strip, i.e. ‘I want’ plus the desired item.
Phase 5 teaches the children to answer the question ‘what do you want?’
Phase 6 introduces commenting. The children are taught to answer questions such as ‘what do you hear/see?’ Once the child has reached this stage, vocabulary expansion is embarked upon. Attributes are introduced and sentence structure extended.
Liddle (2001) conducted a mini experiment with only six autistic children, who were taught using PECS. The results that she gained showed that using PECS as a way for improving communication skills is beneficial. Children who were now able to make sentence strips “I want” plus desired object, are also able to use concepts su...
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...re able to learn the behavior more rapidly through the video.
Furthermore, to show how useful video modeling is in general education, Akmanoglu (2015) conducted a research where autistic children were taught to name emotions. The most important thing in social interaction and communication is the ability to recognize emotions. Since autism children lack the potential to communicate and to interact socially, that also means they also lack understanding facial expressions. Akmanoglu (2015) taught eight emotions (happy, sad, angry, scared, disgust, surprised, bored, feeling physical pain) to autistic children using videos. From this experiment Akmanoglu (2015) was able to demonstrate that video modeling was effective in teaching naming of emotions. Additionally, it was seen that the autistic children were able to maintain these skills after the end of the intervention.
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