Batrolomeo Cristofori brings the piano into the musical arena around 1709 in Florence, Italy. One of Cristoforis previous instruments, the harpsichord, actually brought about the idea of the piano. Cristofori wanted to develop a more dynamic instrument, because the harpsichord had such a small dynamic range. His answer to that problem was the ‘gravicembali col piano e forte,’ which meant harpsichord with soft and loud. This long name was shortened to pianoforte, and then eventually forte was dropped, and now these modern instruments are known as pianos. As the keeper of instruments in Prince Ferdinand’s court in Florence, Cristofori reinvented the harpsichord into the piano. The actual date that he created the piano is unknown, but shortly after after 1700 is the general consensus.
The piano was not as well taken with at the beginning of its invention. Interestingly enough, in one article, Bach is mentioned saying that at first he was not that fond of it. Not until after the Seven Years War was over did pianos become famous in Germany. A few instrument makers in the early 18th century were building on what Cristofori had invented. One of these makers was Zumpe who became famous for his “square” pianos around the 1720’s in Germany. Fransisco Mirabal is making pianos in Spain in 1745, while Thomas Culliford starts a piano making business in London just five years later. In the 1760’s Guib and Gulliford were making pianos for Longman & Broderip (famous music publishers). A few years later in 1772, Johann Stein developed pianos with what is called the Viennese action, which is allegedly the type of piano Mozart preferred. It was not until 1775 that the piano made its debut in America. Johann Behrent of Philadelphia ...
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...oscow Symphony Orchestra. In 1891, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra was established when Theodore Thomas, the leading conductor in America at the time, was asked by a Chicago businessman to basically create one. So that is exactly what Thomas did. He was the conductor for a few years until his death in 1905. Since the beginning of the orchestra till today there have been ten conductors. Under the second conductor, a civic orchestra was founded in 1919, becoming the first training orchestra in the United States associated with a major symphony orchestra. Over the next few years the orchestra was becoming more popular and finally took an overseas tour in 1971. This tour allowed the orchestra’s reputation to become one of the ‘world’s finest musical ensembles.’ The Chicago Symphony Orchestra continues to go on tours and has gone on 39 overseas tours to this day.
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