According to Siegler and Ellis (1996) “the core theoretical assumption of Piaget’s theory is that children are active thinkers, constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings of the world” (p. 211). Piaget stressed the fundamental role of personal experiences and activity in relation to surrounding reality. By studying children in their mental development, he attempted to answer more general epistemological questions concerning the acquisition and expansion of knowledge (Gainotti, 1997). The main question he was trying to answer was ‘how does knowledge grow’. (Smith, 2000). Additionally, Piaget focused on the change in cognition that occurs as children move from one ...
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...reason about their interrelation (Santrock et al., 2008). In this stage, children are able to solve problems in a rational way, but are typically not able to think abstractly. Lastly, the fourth Piagetian stage is the formal operational stage, which appears between the ages of 11 and 15. In this stage, individuals move beyond concrete experiences and begin to think abstractly (Santrock et al., 2008). Formal operational thought involves the ability reason logically and draw conclusions from the information available, as well as apply these processes to hypothetical situations. Abstraction and idealism are characteristics of formal operational thought (Santrock et al., 2008). He described logical thinking as hypothetical-deductive reasoning, in which adolescents begin to think more like scientists, devising plans to solve problems and systematically testing solutions.
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