Diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased substantially over the years and will most likely become one of the major public health concerns within the next decade (Zsombok & Smith, 2009). Worldwide approximately 370 million people are affected by DM and this number is expected to rise and affect 10% of the world’s population, about 500 million, by 2030 (Owens, Matfin, & Monnier, 2014). Since DM is projected to be an increasing problem, it would seem prudent for not only health professionals but also the public to understand more about the causes, treatments, and neurological effects of DM. This paper will go over the etiology, physiology, and treatment of both type 1 and type 2 DM. It will also review the research completed on the connections associated between the central nervous system and DM.
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) occurs when the pancreas produces little to no insulin, a hormone the body requires providing glucose with the ability to enter cells (Mayoclinic, 2014). It is the absorption of glucose that allows the body to produce its energy (Mayoclinic, 2014). T1D affects roughly 5-10% of patients with diabetes and is escalating annually by 2-5% (Medscape, 2014). T1D is a chronic condition that affects not only approximately 1 in every 400-600 children but 50% of those diagnosed develop the disease when they are older than 20 (Medscape, 2014; Tufts, 2014). This metabolic disease can be detected as early as 4 years old with the peak onset age between 11 and 13 (Medscape, 2014). When T1D manifests later in life it is ordinarily less aggressive and is categorized as latent autoimmune diabetes (Medscape, 2014). There is no known cause of this form of...
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...), and insulin antibodies (IAA) (Tufts, 2014). These antibodies target the pancreatic beta islet cells and lead to their destruction, which eventually leads to absolute insulin deficiency and concludes in T1D (Tufts, 2014). Additionally as beta-cell mass declines, insulin secretions continue to drop until the insulin available to the body is no longer adequate to maintain normal blood glucose levels (Medscape, 2014).
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 2 diabetes (T2D), the most prevalent form, affects the way a person’s body metabolizes glucose, an important source of fuel for the cells in the body (Medscape, 2014). The onset of T2D typically occurs in adults who are 40 years old or older with the prevalence growing with advanced age (Medscape, 2014). Symptoms of T2D often develop more slowly so one might have T2D for years yet be unaware of it (Mayoclinic, 2014).
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