When the human body inhales cigarette smoke, it is put at risk of suffering a number of serious and even fatal diseases that spread across the body’s many systems (Smoking and the effects, 2015). These systems work together to create a state of ‘dynamic equilibrium’, also known as homeostasis, with the many body systems being homeostatically regulated to keep the body functioning properly. When the body is subject to the harmful substances contained in cigarette smoke, this equilibrium is disrupted. The respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine and the immune system are examples of where homeostasis can be disrupted because of chemicals such as nicotine and tobacco that are contained in cigarette smoke. These body systems then have to respond and interact to maintain homeostasis in the long term (Annalisa’s Physiology, 2015). In response to this epidemic, the Australian Government and other organizations have implemented numerous strategies throughout the years. Examples include the Tobacco Advertising Prohibition Act in 1993 and the most recent strategy of the plain packaging initiative (Department of Health, 2015).
When the body inhales cigarette smoke, immediately the homeostasis mechanisms involved within the respiratory system become disrupted, with the tar contained within the smoke damaging the lining of the lungs reducing the body’s intake of oxygen, this affecting the cardiovascular system by reducing the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. Tar and other chemicals, which are contained in cigarette smoke, coat the lining of the alveoli, the site where the gas exchange between oxygen and carbon ...
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... the obstruction of airflow (Tips From Former Smokers, 2015). With continued smoking, nicotine will start to damage the interaction between the endocrine system and the cardiovascular system, with nicotine causing an imbalance of blood sugar levels making the body insulin resistant. When nicotine causes the cholinergic receptors to notify the adrenal glands to release adrenalin into the bloodstream, which is usually in response to low blood sugar levels, the liver produces an increase in glucose (Winter, 2011). The liver continues to convert glycogen into glucose as the body perceives a homeostatic imbalance in glucose levels due to the continual release of adrenalin (Winter, 2011). In the long term this constant supply of adrenalin and glucose causes the body to become insulin resistant, as there is a perceived imbalance in blood sugar levels (Winter, 2011).
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