The Physics Of The Electron Microscope Essay

The Physics Of The Electron Microscope Essay

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Introduction:
In 1931 Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska became the first people to accomplish something no one else had ever done before. “…(They) overcame the barrier to higher resolution that had been imposed by the limitations of visible light,” this meant these two men were able to see more on an cellular level than anyone before them (Palucka 2002). Their invention that accomplished this was called the Electron Microscope. “Within a decade, their invention was tweaked to the point that scientists could see up to 10nm and in 1944 it was furthered to the level of 2nm” (Palucka 2002). The electron microscope is a microscope that uses “high voltage, special electron lens, vacuum systems, and bright electron guns” to provide the precise and clear picture that it gives scientists to look at (Palucka 2002). On this level on microscopy, scientists could see new membrane bound organelles they did not know existed. Of these membrane organelles scientists found that there were organelles that acted as a barrier that they called a plasma membrane. The plasma membrane is the outermost coating in eukaryotic cells that allows the cell to transport nutrients, drugs, and objects into and out of the cell. The plasma membrane is essential to all the other membrane bound organelles successful functioning.
Within an individual cells plasma membrane there are many different components that come together to help the cell complete all the functions a cell can do. The very basic, but most important part of the plasma membrane is the fact it is selectively permeable. Selectively permeable means that some substances can cross the membrane with ease, some with a little bit of help, and some substances cannot cross the membrane at all. The plasma me...


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... to control what enters and exits efficiently. If the cell did not have this system, substances would have no control as to which direction molecules went, what substances actually entered and or exited, and it would have no means of protection. This lab follows the functions of simple diffusion. Due to understanding of how membranes and diffusion works, the working hypothesis for the first test in this lab was as follows: Once the dialysis tubings filled with Potassium Permanganate (KmnO4) are placed in the beakers full of distilled water, the Potassium Permanganate will diffuse from the dialysis tubing into the beaker in attempts to reach an equilibrium of Potassium Permanganate and distilled water. The hypothesis for the second test was as follows: The KmnO4 will reach an equilibrium faster at a higher temperature than they will at room or body temperature.

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