An atom is an object containing positive and negative charged particles with more than 99.9% of its mass, produced from the protons and neutrons, packed into a small nucleus. This nucleus, located in the center of the atom, is orbited by electrons, point particles that are even smaller in size. Protons have a positive charge while electrons have a negative charge and neutrons have a neutral charge. When referring to a particle in the nucleus without specifying proton or neutron, the term nucleons is used.
Nucleons have their own structure. They are created from three point particles, called quarks. In the nucleus, there are two types of quarks, known as the “up” quark and the “down” quark. Up and down have a positive charge of 2/3 and 1/3 of the total charge of a proton, which has two up quarks and one down quark. The neutron contains one up quark and two down quarks, giving it a net zero charge. Within the nucleon, the quarks bind tightly such that the nucleons are a single particle. Since the protons and neutrons closely interact with each other, they can be considered a single particle, the nucleus, as compared to the electrons that orbit the nucleus.
A wave has properties such as amplitude, or the height of the wave, period, or the time to complete an oscillation, and frequency, or the number of times per unit of time that it completes one oscillation. There are two types of waves, traveling and standing waves. Traveling waves ‘trave...
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..., though unknown, will be defined as the distance from the center of the box to the edge of the box. Moving to momentum, a particle in ground state has a wave function where the wavelength is two times the size of the box. This is because the particle can be moving either left or right and the magnitude of the momentum is uncertain since it depends on the wavelength. If the box were smaller, the uncertainity in position would be smaller but in momentum would be larger. If these two values were to be multiplied, the value corresponding to the size of the box would cancel out and equal Planck’s constant. According to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, the product of the uncertainties in the position and the momentum will not be smaller than one tenth of Planck’s constant. The uncertainty principle is a result of wave particle duality and therefore, quantum physics.
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