Physics of a Fire

Physics of a Fire

Length: 1380 words (3.9 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓
Fire is a chemical reaction whcih needs three things to be present so it can happen: Oxygen, Fuel, and Heat.

If one of these is not present, the fire cannot start. If one of these is taken from a fire it will go out.

But how does this all work?

We all breathe Oxygen (O²) everyday - in fact, without it we would suffocate. But did you know that fire breathes Oxygen too? And, like us, without Oxygen a fire will also suffocate.

When Oxygen in the air combines with flammable vapours given off by Fuels - heat is produced and then ignition can occur.

Without enough Oxygen, ignition cannot happen. In the opposite way, if there is too much Oxygen then the vapours won't be concentrated enough to ignite. The ratio of vapour to Oxygen is known as the 'explosive' or 'flammable' limit and is different for each gas or vapour.

Combustion occurs when flammable vapours mix with air (Oxygen) and are ignited by a spark or flame.

Solids give off flammable vapours by being heated. Certain solids such as paper or flour appear to ignite almost instantly. This is because they give off vapours and reach a flammable temperature almost immediately. In fact, fine dusts dispersed in the air can explode because they give off vapours and ignite so quickly it appear to happen instantly.

Other solids like timber take longer to ignite because they are more dense and so don't give off flammable vapours so easily.
So, in our fire triangle we've got Oxygen and Heat, but we also need something that will burn - this is our Fuel.

Fuels can take almost any form:

Solids like wood, fabric, rubber and plastic.
Liquids such as petrol, oil, cooking oil or even nail varnish remover.
Gases like propane, butane and 'natural' gas.

If a fire broke out in your home today, would you automatically know which fire extinguisher to use? What would happen if you used a Class A fire extinguisher on a fire in the electrical service panel in your basement? Answer: you'd possibly be electrocuted if the extinguishing agent is a liquid!

A long time ago, the fire protection industry recognized the need to classify extinguishers according to the many kinds of burning materials encountered in a fire. For example, Class A, water-type fire extinguishers cannot be used on the electrical fires because the extinguisher operator could be seriously injured by the conduction of electricity by the stream of water from their extinguisher.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Physics of a Fire." 20 Nov 2019

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Physics of Aristotle Essay examples

- The great Greek thinker Aristotle was born in 384 B.C. in Stagirus, a city in ancient Macedonia in northern Greece. At the age of eighteen Aristotle went to Athens to begin his studies at Plato's Academy. He stayed and studied at the Academy for nineteen years and in that time became both a teacher and an independent researcher. After Plato's death in 347 B.C. Aristotle spent twelve years traveling and living in various places around the Aegean Sea. It was during this time that Aristotle was asked by Philip of Macedon to be a private tutor to his son, Alexander....   [tags: physics aristotle]

Research Papers
1385 words (4 pages)

Essay on Physics of Tsunamis

- Tsunamis are waves, or series of waves, created by a disturbance in the ocean. Most of the time this disturbance is by an earthquake but can be from meteorites, landslides, or even explosions. They are sometimes known as tidal waves but this is a misnomer because tsunamis have nothing to do with tides. While tsunamis are feared particularly in light of the December 26th tsunami, the physics behind them is fascinating. One the largest tsunamis in recent history was the Cascadia tsunami in 1700. This occured when two continental plates (stretching from Vancouver to California) slipped causing a 9.0 magnitude earthquake....   [tags: physics tsunami]

Research Papers
974 words (2.8 pages)

History of Physics Essay

- History of Physics Physics began when man first started to study his surroundings. Early applications of physics include the invention of the wheel and of primitive weapons. The people who built Stone Henge had knowledge of physical mechanics in order to move the rocks and place them on top of each other. It was not until during the period of Greek culture that the first systematic treatment of physics started with the use of mechanics. Thales is often said to have been the first scientist, and the first Greek philosopher....   [tags: Science Scientific Physics Essays]

Free Essays
1319 words (3.8 pages)

Essay on Physics of Baseball

- Missing Figures Baseball is a fascinating sport that is exceptionally fun to play. This assignment is all about understanding the physics of a few key aspects of this sport. One might ask what physics could have to do with baseball. Like most sports baseball involves physical motion. Baseball encompasses all three planes of motion through throwing, hitting, and fielding. All of the classical laws of mechanics can be applied to understand the physics of this game. Baseball is not a difficult game to comprehend, but it can a very long time to achieve a high level of performance....   [tags: physics sport sports baseball]

Free Essays
1477 words (4.2 pages)

Physics of Fireworks Essay

- After black powder was discovered by the Chinese in the 9th Century, the relatively short history of fireworks began with this explosive chemical composition. Black powder is made up of potassium nitrate, sulfur, and charcoal (KNO3); in the correct amounts, this combination has very explosive results. The use of black powder sprung forth the evolution of muskets, rockets, and fireworks. Although history has shown that the development of black powder muskets into modern day guns, artillery, and weapons of mass destruction have changed the face of the earth, taken many lives, and changed the outcome of many wars, black powder is also used in many rituals and celebrations....   [tags: physics firework fireworks]

Research Papers
2865 words (8.2 pages)

Physics and Firearms Essay

- So you are into reloading and you wonder how well that little package with 77 grains of IMR 4350 powder behind a 300 grain round nose, full metal jacket bullet will do. Well, you can do two things, a little bit of physics calculations, or go out and touch it off, hoping that it doesn’t explode in the barrel. I would choose to do a little physics myself… By using some basic physics equations, you can figure out just about any part of the rifles ballistics data. For instance, if you know a few variables, you can predict range with physics, or if you like you can figure things like drag on the bullet, pressure and expansion values inside the gun, on the bullet and much more, all from physics....   [tags: physics firearm gun guns ballistics]

Free Essays
807 words (2.3 pages)

Physics of Paintball Essay

- There are three main areas of paintball that I will be analyzing. First the way in which a paintball leaves the barrel of a paintball marker. Second the way in which a paintball fly's through the air and lastly how to determine optimum ranges for paintballs. Firing a paintball As you fire the trigger, the paintball is being pushed down the barrel of the marker by the difference in pressure between the CO2 from a tank attached to the marker which builds up behind the ball and the air in front of the ball....   [tags: physics sport paint paintball gun]

Free Essays
650 words (1.9 pages)

Essay on Physics of the Compound Bow

- A Brief History of the Bow * Arrowheads have been found in Africa that date back as far as 25,000 to 50,000 B.C. * Throughout the next few tens of thousands of years, humans had PLENTY of time to refine their techniques. Fire-hardening arrow heads, fletching arrow shafts to improve their flight characteristics, "tillering" bows so that the upper and lower limbs had the same bend radius, etc. All of these improvements helped increase the efficiency and accuracy of the bow and arrow, and helped humans to survive and advance throughout the ages....   [tags: physics weapon bow archery]

Free Essays
1069 words (3.1 pages)

Physics of Projectile Motion in Computer Games Essay

- Introduction Physics define the rules by which we live our physical existence. Many of us go about our day to day lives without any true understanding of the Laws which govern how we interact with our surroundings. Physics is our way of making sense of the forces which act upon us and shape the way we accomplish even the most menial of tasks. From walking to driving to playing a game of catch, anyone can see physics in action. A computer game programmer must take a special look at the forces at work around us....   [tags: physics video game computer]

Free Essays
1112 words (3.2 pages)

Physics of Rail Guns Essay

- The concept of a rail gun is simple: two parallel bars connected to a power source produce an electric field. This electric field can be used to propel a projectile along the bars. If enough amperage is provided, the projectile can achieve velocities of up to 4 km/s. The U.S. Army has been interested in the potential of electromagnetic guns for quite some time. In 1988 the University of Texas Center for Electromagnetics began work on a 9 MJ range gun, which would be designed to launch 2-4 kg projectiles at velocities of up to 4 km/s....   [tags: physics weapon weapons rail gun]

Research Papers
1213 words (3.5 pages)

Related Searches

Instead, a Class C fire extinguisher will work best. Another example, a raging fire in a manufacturing plant with flammable metals, such as magnesium, should be fought with a Class D fire extinguisher.

Besides knowing what type of fire you're likely to encounter, it's also important to know what kind of extinguishing agent your fire extinguisher should have in it. This is because certain extinguishments will work only on certain kinds of fires. Others can actually aggravate the situation, causing an even more critical situation.

For example, a WATER agent should only be used on Class A fires. This is because they put out fires by cooling, soaking and penetrating combustible materials. A REGULAR DRY CHEMICAL agent should only be used on Class B and C fires. This is because they attempt to interrupt the fire's flame by interfering with the fuel-oxygen-heat triangle instead of simply cooling a fire. A MULTIPURPOSE DRY CHEMICAL, however, can be used on Class A, B, and C fires. This is because the extinguishing agent melts when it's exposed to heat, forming an oxygen barrier over the burning materials.

CARBON DIOXIDE, another popular extinguishment, should also be used on Class B and C fires. They put out fires by cutting off the air supply, virtually choking a fire. FOAM agents also cut off a fire's oxygen supply, but they should only be used on Class A and B fires.

DRY POWDER agents are good only on Class D fires. Do not use dry powder for Class A, B, and C fires. This is because they specifically form a coating agent over the burning metals, suffocating the flame.

Obviously, most of the time there are more than one type of materials found in each area of a home. For instance, in a basement you're likely to find cloth; wood; an electrical panel box; electric, oil or a gas furnace; and an electric or gas hot water tank. In this case, buying a Class A/B/C extinguisher would be advisable.

Another example is the kitchen area where you're likely to find flammable liquids (grease) and gases (propane or natural gas). In addition, you'llusually find various electrical appliances. In this situation, it is probably more economical to buy Class B/C extinguisher instead of keeping separate Class B and C extinguishers in these areas. Class A extinguishers also are good

Fire Classifications
Class A: Fires that involve wood, cloth, rubber, paper, and some types of plastics.
Class B: Fires that involve gasoline, oil, paint, natural and propane gases, and flammable liquids, gases, and greases.
Class C: Fires that involve all the materials found in Class A and B fires, but with the introduction of an electrical appliances, wiring, or other electrically energized objects in the vicinity of the fire.
Class D: Fires that involve combustible metals, such as sodium, magnesium, and potassium.

The hallmark of a good fire department is the ability to make an aggressive interior attack. When occupants await rescue and are trapped by fire, it is the aggressive fire department that will save them.

Whenever the topic of interior structural fire attack arises, there is always debate as to which method of fire attack is best. Some departments rely on the direct attack method. Other departments attempt an aggressive interior attack using the indirect or combination method.

Fire attack is a constant source of debate in the fire service. This debate usually focuses on which nozzle, pressure, and pattern are best to attack a fire. At the heart of the discussion are three basic rules that all sides do agree upon.

Rule Number One: Fire attack must be properly supported

Fire attack does not exist in a vacuum. There are a number of important supporting operations that must be performed to allow for a safe and effective fire attack. These operations include size-up, command, water supply, stretching the attack line, stretching the back-up line, and initiating early ventilation. Without these operations, fire attack success will be decreased while the danger to firefighters will vastly increase.

Rule Number Two: There must be adequate flow to knock down the fire

Fire attack is a simple matter of physics. There must be enough water hitting the fire to eliminate the heat that is being produced. If the attack line does not have adequate flow, the fire will continue to burn while water supplies are being depleted. It is absolutely critical that the attack line flows enough water to achieve knockdown quickly. Remember! A lot of water real fast beats a little bit of water over a long period of time!

Rule Number Three: The water must hit the seat of the fire

In order for any amount of water to have any effect, it must reach the seat of the fire. It will not matter how much the attack line is flowing, if the water is wasted, only the water level lights on the engine will go out. This rule requires the attack line to be properly positioned and then repositioned as necessary so that the water is always hitting the fire. Another important consideration here is the penetration ability of the attack stream. There must be adequate flow and pressure available so that the water can penetrate the super heated gases and actually reach the seat of the fire.

These three core rules are beautiful in their simplicity and when considered, much of the fire attack debate becomes academic. This is because there is more than one way to accomplish each rule and the correct method is based on the situation, departmental necessities, and departmental preference. What is important is that firefighters be able to determine which tactics are best for any given situation. These tactics are based on the basic elements of fire attack that include attack pattern, direction, and type.
Return to