The Philosophy Ethical Theories : Moral Skepticism And Moral Objectivism

The Philosophy Ethical Theories : Moral Skepticism And Moral Objectivism

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Morality is important in people’s daily lives. It shapes how people think and act. By acting according to some certain moral standards, people are expecting some positive results. With the right moral standards, people will act the right way, and the society will run better. True morality will build a Utopia, which people dream of. Since morality is a complex and abstract idea, people argued about moral standards everyday, and there seems to be no absolute answers. To fully understand why and how some moral standards are right while others are wrong, we need to figure out the base of moral standards. This paper will talk about two philosophy ethical theories: moral skepticism and moral objectivism. Shafer-Landau argues for moral objectivism and against moral skepticism in his book, and he has some compelling arguments. However, objectivism is not a perfect theory without flaws. It is wrong to condemn moral skepticism and endorse objectivism because both of the two theories have flaws in their arguments. In this paper, I will discuss these two theories based on Shafer-Landau’s ideas. Objectivism will be discussed first with the analysis of Shafer-Landau’s defense and three doubtful points based on his argument. In the second part, three different kinds of skepticism including nihilism, subjectivism, and relativism will be discussed with the reasonings as well as flaws.

Objectivism
Moral objectivism claims that there are fixed moral facts in the world. In other words,moral facts exist as truth that need to be discover. Shafer-Landau endorses moral objectivism in his book. He argues for moral objectivism based on two main points. First, moral objectivism is tolerant and open-minded. Since there is a basic standard that can be compa...


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... they are social norms. Both of them have some valuable points, yet the arguments are inconsistent.
The main reasoning for moral subjectivism and relativism is the idea of moral is defined by personal or social structure. In other words, both of subjectivism and relativism believes that moral standards are man-made. We human beings invented moral codes to guide our behavior. On one hand, all the moral codes are suppose to apply to humans, not animals or plants. We are not expect any other species other than us to understand and apply them. As a result, saying that moral codes are human-made makes sense. On the other hand, different people or culture have different moral standards, and the disagreement of morality issues will always exists. Any specific circumstance may change the way people thinks, and solving the problems by going with social norm is a good option.

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