This is a review of “Personalized Pharmacogenomics: Predicting Efficacy and Adverse Drug Reactions” in the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. This discusses medicine on an individual level and the role of genetics in prescribing drugs. There are many factors that need to be taken into consideration, as everyone is different and will therefore respond to drugs differently. When it comes to trying to cure or control a disease, it is not uncommon for clinicians to prescribe patients drugs. With that said, there are many risks involved. There is so much variability in drug response, and benefits versus risks are something clinicians need to carefully assess.
Pharmacogenetics is the study of genetic effects on an individual’s reaction to different drugs. The examination of a specific gene, or group of genes, may be used to foresee responses to a particular drug. Pharmacogenomics refers collectively to all the genes that impact gene responses, and how genome wide analysis may be used to pinpoint such genes in pursuit for novel drug targets and key determinates of drug reactions. The outcomes of a specific dose of a particular drug differ between different receivers. A drug that is successful in one person may have no effect in another person, while others may have limited responses or even sever adverse side effects. There are many contributive factors to such variation in drug response such as gender, age, body mass, diet, co-medication, disease states, environmental factors, and genetic factors. Drugs undertake the stages of absorption, distribution, target interaction, metabolism, and excretion. Genes that have an effect on any of these phases could influence the whole drug response.
There are two core sets of genes that...
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... response to the drug. Those who poorly metabolize the drug build up too much concentration of the substrate, which cause a higher risk of adverse drug reaction.
Individual dosing and personalized medicine is emerging quickly and has the capability to reduce drug adverse effects. This includes methods such as whole genomic analysis on each individual patient. This is a very specific test that looks at how drugs metabolize to the individual’s body.
When it comes down to it, the right medication can save a life. One drug that works for someone else may not work for another person. Because of genetic makeup, some people break down different medication either too slowly or too fast. Some people may be predisposed to threatening side effects from a drug simply by having the wrong genes. A genetic test can show how your body is likely to respond to these drugs beforehand.
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