The most adverse drug events (ADE) transpire due to the privation of knowledge of the interaction of one prescribed or over the counter (OTC) drug with another. Nazarko (2014) claims ADEs cause 5 – 15% of hospital admissions. And Stausberg (2014) results indicate the prevalence rate of ADE’s in the USA was 5.64%, which frolicked a substantial burden on US healthcare systems with annual outlays around 2 billion USDs (2). To diminish ADRs, increased patient involvement in questioning pharmacist, or practitioners to promote awareness of prescribed medication’s adverse drug reactions (ADR), and drug interactions with OTC or prescribed NSAIDs, antidepressants, aspirin, alcohol, . . . that may be taken occasionally is vital. Moore, Pollack, & Butkeralt (2015) reports that ADRs comprising gastrointestinal bleeding, cardiovascular and renal effects, have been reported with NSAID use in combination with other medications (1061). Schmiedl, et. al. (2014) found that 4% of all ADR related internal medicine hospitalizations were due to self-medication (226). Another essential discussion, relates to how foods interact with prescribed medications. For example, a diet rich in vitamin K (green leafy vegetables) diminishes the effectiveness of blood thinners like warfarin. And grapefruit juice interacts with several antidepressants, statins, channel blockers, and many other prescribed drugs. Knowledge and being directly involved in your health care are key for those that are capable of managing their own medications.
Unfortunately, older people are vulnerable to incongruent prescribing. Prior research shows medications are inappropriately prescribed to 12% of ...
... middle of paper ...
...ional standardization of terms beyond diagnosis codes (8).
In correlation with these findings, the co-administration of multiple drugs often causes known or unknown ADRs, thus an integrated ADR data mapping tool would highly improve safety of drug administration. Shoshi, et. al. (2015) recommends that the GraphSAW, a network-based drug mapping system which contains drug side effects, drug-drug and drug-molecular interactions, drug-disease and drug-pathway relationships all connected by drug mapping, will markedly advance patient safety (10). Benkirane’s, et.al. (2014) assessment recommends that national centers utilize the World Health Organization’s ADR preventability tool, the P Method (392). And Eriksson, et. al. (2014) research concluded that data mining of EMRs could provide real-time knowledge of patient ADEs which would likewise advance drug safety (246).
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