Essay on Penicillin And Its Effects On The Growth Of A Microbe 's Cell Wall

Essay on Penicillin And Its Effects On The Growth Of A Microbe 's Cell Wall

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In this world, there are countless pathogenic microorganisms, and over the last century, scientists have been trying to find antibiotics that rid those microorganisms. An antibiotic is a medicine that destroys or inhibits the growth of a microbe’s cell wall; microbes cannot survive without their cell wall. For example, penicillin is an antibiotic that has been around since the early 1900s; Alexander Fleming, a scientist, discovered it. At first, many microorganisms were highly susceptible to penicillin, but over time most microorganisms evolved by developing a type of resistance to the antibiotic. For example, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Stenotropnomonas maltophilia, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enterica are a few microbes that have developed this resistance (Davies D. and Davies J., 2010). The evolved microorganisms developed this resistance due to the fact that penicillin has been under or overused for too long, not a prescription in Asian countries, and many people were not educated enough on antibiotics (Mamishi et al, 2014).
Penicillin was one of the first antibiotics able to treat a lethal disease (Markel, D., 2013). Dr. Alexander Fleming, accidentally discovered penicillin when one of his cultures had been exposed to it, he noticed that the penicillin had developed zones of inhibition with the culture S. aureus (Markel, D., 2013). Dr. Fleming made an announcement to the world after his discovery of penicillin; he stated that if people overuse this antibiotic, the development of penicillin resistance will occur (Markel, D., 2013). As people became overwhelmed with excitement that a cure to practically all bacterial infections had been d...


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...ome resistant towards it and another antibiotic would have to take its place (Gouveia, E. L., et al, 2011). In the study, screens for patient isolates were developed to determine resistance to penicillin, and the results showed that isolates were highly resistant to penicillin (Gouveia, E. L., et al, 2011). However, microbiologists found that only three out of 548 pneumococcal isolates were highly resistant to penicillin and those isolates halfway-showed resistance to cefotaxime (Gouveia, E. L., et al, 2011). The study also proved that young children were more likely to have penicillin resistant genes than older patients, who were more likely to have penicillin-sensitive isolates (Gouveia, E. L., et al, 2011). The, young children, patients had a higher chance of fatality; therefore, having to switch their antibiotic to cephalosporin (Gouveia, E. L., et al, 2011).

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