B.F. Skinner later built upon on Pavlov’s theory and formulated a principle of operant conditioning, which states that certain consequences (reinforcement – positive or negative) affect the frequency of voluntary behaviors. A particular behavior can be influenced by the schedule of reinforcement being used.
In my social studies class, we start class by listening to song as students walk in and get settled. Once the music comes to an end the students then all come to attention and wait for me to give instruction. Unknowingly, I have conditioned my students to come to attention after the music ends. I didn’t realize this until after I critically reflected on my practice in correlation with this class.
Albert Bandura is widely credited with the development of the Social cognitive theory, which posits that portions of an individual 's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences. This is very much so similar to behaviorism in that the stimulus is the environment. Within SCT individuals may acquire knowledge through observation and social interaction, both unconditioned and conditioned stimuli are a part of one’s environment. Furthermore, rewards and punishments are also observed and as a result knowledge is acquired, even if the individual is not r...
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... method of student acquisition and constructivist believe that learning is a result of experiences that one must undertake in order to gain true understanding and knowledge.
I am an ardent supporter of constructivist methodology of teaching. Project based learning is one of my favorite teaching practices. I believe that having students research, design, and execute a project on the topic of their interest is the best means for them to truly grasp new knowledge. When I was a child I would always ask my parent how computers worked. Uncertain of the answer themselves, they told me to figure it out. They would give me an old computer and let me deconstruct and reconstruct it until I figured it out, and it worked. Constructivism may not be that old as a formal theory, however since the dawn of man it has been how we as humans have learned and innovated on technology.
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