Essay on The Pathway Of A Stimulus

Essay on The Pathway Of A Stimulus

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The moment you step on a tack, the pathway of a stimulus begins. The process starts in the five layers of the epidermis. There are several sensitive cells in the epidermis and dermis called touch receptors. The stimulus then moves to the dermis where there are many blood vessels, nerve endings and a variety of touch receptors. The Meissner 's corpuscles is located in the dermis as well and senses the contact of the tack to the skin. The Pacinian corpuscles is responsible for sensing the pressure from the tack. The receptor in this pathway is the pain receptor. Pain receptors or nociceptors are responsible for detecting pain that can or does cause damage to the skin and are located in the nerve endings. In the nerve endings, the disturbance of the tack causes an impulse exciting the resting membrane potential of the neuron to the threshold membrane potential so the action potential can be reached.The neuron 's cell membrane is depolarized and the sensory receptors can convert the information into nerve impulses. The nerve impulse then travels into the neuron from the dendrites into the cell body and goes to the myelinated axon, bouncing to each node of Ranvier to the synaptic knob where the axon meets the dendrite of another neuron. This is where synapse happens. The neuron bringing the impulse is called a pre-synaptic neuron. The impulse now in the spinal cord; at the synapse the impulse diverges. The sensation is relayed to the brain by the axon collaterals. Another signal is sent through the ventral root and the activation of the motor neuron occurs. A crossed extensor reflex occurs. A motor response to the stimulus also occurs on the opposite side of the stimulus. The crossed extensor reflex complements the flexor reflex and ...

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...interior. If this depolarization, called generator potential, reaches a critical point, the membrane then generates an action potential. The critical point of depolarization that must be overcome in order to activate an action potential is called threshold.The action potentials are caused by depolarization of the membrane above the threshold.
In the repolarization phase, the sodium channel is deactivated and the conductivity of membrane for potassium increases. These positive ions follow its chemical and electrical gradient and exit from the cell, thus gradually inverting the membrane potential. In the recovery phase, the active sodium/potassium pump reestablish the ionic levels which were altered during the action potential: for each sodium ion which is transported from the inside to the outside, a corresponding potassium is transported in the opposite direction.

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