Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent disabling neurological disease affecting young adults between 20 and 40 years of age. Although it is more common among people in this age bracket, this does not mean that other age brackets are immune to it. It is an inflammatory condition affecting the myelin sheath. This is a membrane that covers nerve fibers. The condition is also known to attack and damage the nerve cell bodies. These cells are normally located in the brain’s gray matter. Axons found in the brain, the optic nerves and spinal cord are also affected by this disease (Smith & McDonald, 1999).
The pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis is quite complex. It is still not well understood hence it is under investigation. Researchers still do not quite agree about its exact scope. While some regard it as a pathological entity, others regard it as a clinical one. There are two models presently which explain the development of this condition. These are the inside -out model and the outside- in model. The inside out model asserts that a problem in the Central Nervous System generates an immune response whose effect is the destruction of myelin. After the myelin is damaged, the Brain Blood Barrier breaks (Kemenyova et al, 2015). The outside-in model on the other hand argues that an outside factor generates leakages in the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB). Once the BBB starts to leak, the external factor causing its damage then enters the central nervous system where it destroys myelin and axons. Irrespective of the actual cause of Multiple Sclerosis, a degree of damage causes a CSF unknown soluble factor. This factor is produced in meningeal zones after which it diffuses into the cortical parenchym...
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... to have more effective early diagnosis mechanisms is also imperative. Drugs which can support individualized treatment are also necessary. To develop these drugs, there is need to achieve a higher comprehension and discussion of the perceptions of patients (Abdel-Aziz et al, 2015). There is also need to enhance interactions between physicians, caregivers, patients and medical staff. All the existing drugs are administered parentally. Drugs whose injection is undertaken over a protracted period of time are a big bother to patients. As such, compliance rates for the same may be low. Future medications should be capable of handling these concerns. Fingolimod is a drug administered orally. It is one of the drugs developed recently which is expected to have higher levels of patient compliance and enhanced neuroprotective effects than other treatments (Portaccio, 2011).
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- Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an acquired demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that typically is diagnosed in the second or third decade of life. Normally, nerves are enclosed in myelin sheaths that help facilitate transmission of nerve impulses within the CNS and the peripheral nervous system throughout the body. In patients with MS, the myelin sheath is damaged and eventually degenerates, causing patches of scar tissue called plaques or lesions to occur anywhere randomly on the myelin sheath (Ruto, 2013).... [tags: central nervous system, diagnosis]
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