Francis Crick once posed an important question- “How then is memory stored in the brain so that its trace is relatively immune to molecular turnover?” (Glanzman, 2012). Ever since, neuroscientists have been struggling to answer Crick’s question. Long- Term Potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength is the underlying mechanism for formation of memory. In brief, LTP involves the increase in number of AMPA receptor and its permeability when neurotransmitters bind to NMDA receptor, which allows calcium influx and subsequent activation of Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII). However, the molecular mediators of LTP were only important in the formation of memory, but not the maintenance of it (Sacktor, 2011). Protein Kinase M- Zeta (PKM-ζ) was brought to the spotlight when it was first identified as the molecule responsible for maintaining long- term memory (Sacktor et al., 1993). This prompted a plethora of studies hoping to derive the mechanism of PKM-ζ. Only recently, a few emerging publications are suggesting that PKM-ζ do not play any role in memory. I will be reviewing a publication that supports PKM-ζ and one that disprove the roles of PKM-ζ in memory.
PKM-ζ is a key molecule in retaining memory
Early researches have showed that PKM-ζ plays a vital part in maintaining late LTP, a phase requiring gene transcription and mRNA translation, which results in an increased number of AMPA receptors (Derkach et al., 2007). Unlike conventional protein kinases, once PKM-ζ are formed and phosphorylated, it will be constantly active thus, believed to be responsible for maintenance of LTP (King et al., 2012). Although Sacktor et al. first documented the involvement of PKM-ζ ...
... middle of paper ...
...long-term potentiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 90(18), 8342-8346.
Sacktor, T. C. (2008). PKMζ, LTP maintenance, and the dynamic molecular biology of memory storage. Progress in brain research, 169, 27-40.
Sacktor, T. C. (2011). How does PKMζ maintain long-term memory?. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12(1), 9-15.
Shema, R., Haramati, S., Ron, S., Hazvi, S., Chen, A., Sacktor, T. C., & Dudai, Y. (2011). Enhancement of consolidated long-term memory by overexpression of protein kinase Mζ in the neocortex. Science, 331(6021), 1207-1210.
Sweatt, J. D. (1999). Toward a molecular explanation for long-term potentiation. Learning & Memory, 6(5), 399-416.
Volk, L. J., Bachman, J. L., Johnson, R., Yu, Y., & Huganir, R. L. (2013). PKM-[zgr] is not required for hippocampal synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Nature, 493(7432), 420-423.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- The past, the present and the future. Can they exists at the same time. Today I was driving one of my best friends to the airport, she stayed for one week in Miami; while I was crying saying goodbye at the airport, I remembered the good time we had in the last week and how fast it passed. Now we are in the present, saying goodbye. This is how we start seeing we don 't have three separated times. In our minds time is always mixed with: past, present and future. Like professor Phillip Zimbardo said on the psychology of time video: we can be oriented at the time we choose, some people tend to worry excessively about the future and all they do is work for it; some can be past oriented either in... [tags: Time, Future, Present, Past]
744 words (2.1 pages)
- Help. I’m trapped. Oh. Thank you Salvador Dali. Finally I am released from my three year trap as a seven year old. For several years of my life, I dreaded the idea of growing up although this may sound a bit ironic because kids nowadays are always trying to age so quickly. It is me still to this day who doesn’t own a pair of high heels or even has any interest in wearing them whatsoever. It is me who has no clue about half of things that are ‘hot topics’ at this age. It is always me who's the most innocent, childish baby of every group I am in.... [tags: Salvador Dalí, Time, Present, Past, Future]
1050 words (3 pages)
- The human memory contains some of our most treasured values. It allows us to remember the past, present, and store information we may need for the future. Memory provides a guidance for us. It influences our behaviors, decisions, and defines our character; our identity. Although, not all memory is created equal and some are less favorable than others. Most would think of memory as a precious gift that we can hold onto forever, but there are also memories we wished to forget. Regardless of the type of memory, without memory we have no direction in life and no purpose.... [tags: Memory, Alzheimer's disease, Hippocampus]
2098 words (6 pages)
- Memory is not just a psychological aspect of our brain that allows us to remember events and ideas. It is our ability to store information from the past. Memory gives us the ability to use this stored information to affect the present and conceivably the future. Through memory; individuals have the capacity to remember various subjects over a lifetime. The issue with memory is its fallibility, meaning that it can lack accuracy, so certain experiences from the past can be distorted. Things change as you remember them, change as you think about them, and change as others make you think about them.... [tags: Memory, Hippocampus, Memory processes]
1504 words (4.3 pages)
- The Reality of the Future: Probabilistic Potentialities How can time be unreal if humans can both perceive and conceive of it. Does time exist outside of human minds at all. If time is singularly linear, that is, there is only one future, what’s the purpose of any human action. Contemplating the nature of the future often leads to ostensible paradoxes. To Aristotle, the future only existed potentially, not actually, because it was impossible to determine true and false statements about the future.... [tags: Time, Future, Present, Past]
1222 words (3.5 pages)
- Indeed, the tendency for memory to regress over time, with earlier representations gaining strength over later representations, has been argued to constitute a fundamental property of human memory (Bjork, 1978, 2001; Bjork, & Bjork, 1992). From the perspective of trying to most adaptively predict the information, prepotencies, and behaviors that are going to be most useful in the future (Anderson, 1990; Anderson & Milson, 1989), a memory system that regresses over time could be expected to provide certain mnemonic advantages.... [tags: Future, Prediction, Memory, Psychology]
705 words (2 pages)
- We have started to undervalue memories somewhat in society because we put an extraordinary amount of emphasis on focusing on the future. This was alluded to earlier in our idea of success. We are now very goal oriented and driven and this causes our perception to be intensely focused on where we are going, not where we have been. This tunnel vison helps us to achieve what we want to do and reach the locations we desire to go, but it doesn’t teach us very much without perspective. Our memories are one of the most powerful teachers we have in our life.... [tags: Time, Present, Future, Past]
840 words (2.4 pages)
- Time and the Art of living The article “Time and the Art of living” by Robert Grudin talks about time of one’s journey through his/her life, the memory of the past, hope and fear for the upcoming future, one’s experience of the present, wit, courage, time, and ways to communicate with the past and future. Living is an art; it’s an art that follows how one can color his/her life for better or for worst. This article is very interesting. After reading this article I think that by facing the memory of the past, hope and fear for the upcoming future and the present will help us learn more on our self and identify the problems that we should face and instead of running from those mistakes, we sh... [tags: Time, Present, Future, Past]
736 words (2.1 pages)
- Déjà vu: The Past in the Present "...parapsychologists think déjà vu is a glimpse into a past-life. The event did happen similarly before, you just happened to die between the occurrences." (2) The mysterious nature of déjà vu does not only lie in the experience itself, but in its definition. The sole unity of truth is the direct French translation - 'already seen.' In general, the phenomena can be summed up as experiencing the past in the present. It is "an uncanny feeling or illusion of having already seen or experienced something that is being experienced for the first time." (3) The déjà vu experience is puzzling because it often leaves people disoriented and searching for explana... [tags: Psychology Psychic Essays]
1660 words (4.7 pages)
- Past, Present, and Future of Computers Imagine being able to do almost anything right from your own living room. You could order a pizza, watch cartoons, or play video games with people from around the entire world. All are possible today with your computer. The beginnings of the computer started off in a rather unique way. It was first used to produce intricate designs with silk, a task far to long a tedious for a human to do constantly. It's really unbelievable how the computers changed from that to what they are now.... [tags: essays research papers]
1746 words (5 pages)