The atmosphere can be divided into four layers based on temperature variations. The closest layer to the Earth is called the troposphere and it extends from Earth's surface up to 7 km (23,000 ft) at the poles, and about 17-18 km (56,000 ft) at the equator. Above this layer is the stratosphere which extends from the top of the troposphere to about 50 km (32 mi; 170,000 ft). The upper boundary between troposphere and stratosphere is known as the tropopause. Temperature variations in the four layers are due to the way solar energy is absorbed as it moves downward through the atmosphere. The Earth’s surface is the primary absorber of solar energy. Some of this energy is reradiated by the Earth as heat, which warms the overlying troposphere. The global average temperature in the troposphere rapidly decreases with altitude until the tropopause, the boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere.
The temperature begins to increase with altitude in the stratosphere. This warming is caused by a form of oxygen called ozone (O3) absorbing ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Ozone protects us from most of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation, which can cause cancer, genetic mutations, and sunburn. Scientists are concerned that human activity is contributing to a decrease in stratospheric ozone. Nitric oxide, which is the exhaust of high-flying jets, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are used as refrigerants, may contribute to ozone depletion.
At the stratopause, the temperature stops increasing with altitude. The overlying mesosphere does not absorb solar radiation, so the temperature decreases with altitude.
At the mesopause, the temperature begins to increase with altitude, and...
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...ng 65 mg/m3 above which concentration respirators must be worn. It is packed in glass ampoules (upto 50 ml), in metal cans and cylinders for direct use. Chloropicrin upto 2% is sometimes added, as a warning agent.
Environmental Pollution by S. M. shafi, Atlantic Publishers & Dist, 2005, ISBN : 812690366X, 9788126903665
Ozone Depletion and Climate Change: Understanding the Linkages by Angus Fergusson Meteorological Service of Canada Published by authority of the Minister of the Environment Copyright © Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2001 Catalogue No. EN56-168/2001E ISBN: 0-662-30692-9
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