WHAT IS CULTURE AND WHERE DOES IT COME FROM?
Anthropology was born in the 1850’s and grew stronger with Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species (1859) and his expansion on evolutionism, which is “the theory that all of life and the universe have developed by growth and change” (Winick 1984:196-197). According to Langness, anthropologists who followed this theory were known as evolutionists, which meant that they “believed in a theory of evolutionary stages through which they thought peoples and cultures must pass on their way to becoming ‘civilized’” (1974:293). Some anthropologists combined Darwin’s ideas with determinism, which is the idea that everything has already been determined by G-d, and they are collectively known as “early evolutionists.” Early evolutionists placed people in one of three categories: savagery (blacks), barbarianism (brown) and civilization (white). This categorization sums up the Age of Scientific Racism, a time when anthropologists used “scientific methods” to justify racism, quite well. When ...
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Robbins, Richard H. 2009. Cultural Anthropology: A Problem-Based Approach. 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
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