The Renaissance challenged the traditional view of the world for Europeans in many different ways. The birthplace of the Renaissance was in the city-states of Northern Italy. Florence was the center of the Renaissance, Italy was politically fragmented and the city-states often fought for power and control. Trade and commercial activity increased during the High Middle Ages, growth of cities and towns, commercial and business developments, middle class merchant elite developed, there was decline in feudalism, a decline in the Church’s hold and control on society and government, growth in vernacular literature and rise of universities and the expansion of learning. The Italian Renaissance occurred first, it focused on the city-states of northern Italy and Rome. It tended to be more worldly with an emphasis on secular pursuits, the humanities, and the art. It also had wealth and power, knowledge was the key. The four major themes of the Renaissance were humanism, secularism, individualism, and skepticism. Humanism focused on both secular and religious; human potential, human progress, and expa...
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...hat was taught by the Church. He believed and trusted Jesus Christ because his righteousness satisfies God. It wasn’t until he read the New Testament that he had the revelation. Luther was a skeptic, he challenged the Church’s authority. Humanist also because he valued man’s ability to think and be educated. He was not a secularist, he was an individualist, he wanted people to have an individual experience with God. He didn’t want to break away, he wanted to reform. His complaints to the Church were indulgences/purgatory, church raising armies and declaring war, Church practices not found in Bible-clerical celibacy, sacraments, and infallibility of the Pope. On October 31, 1517 he posted his 95 theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany. He urged German Princes to force reforms on the Church to curtail its political and economic power in Germany.
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