The Origin Of Aids And Hiv Essay

The Origin Of Aids And Hiv Essay

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The origin of AIDS and HIV has puzzled scientists ever since the illness first came to light in the early 1980s. The first recognized cases of AIDS occurred in the USA in the early 1980s. The illness was resistant to every treatment. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a lentivirus and just like any other virus of the same type, it targets the immune system and weakens people 's defense systems such as the adaptive and innate immune responses, against infections. These viruses are also known as retroviruses. Immunodeficiency simply results when the body doesn’t have the ability to recognize a wide range of infections such as the normal body of a human being.
It has been known that there are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Both types are transmitted by sexual contact, or by other specified ways. HIV-2 is less easily transmitted, and the period between initial infection and illness is longer in the case of HIV-2. Worldwide, the predominant virus is HIV-1, and generally when people refer to HIV without specifying the type of virus they will be referring to HIV-1. The relatively uncommon HIV-2 type is concentrated in West Africa and is rarely found elsewhere
HIV has four different stages, the first stage is when the person is first infected with the virus, it lasts for a few weeks and is often accompanied by a short flu-like illness and in this point of the illness where the immune system starts to produce the HIV antibodies to fight the infection. The second stage of the disease lasts for an average of ten years and is mostly free of major symptoms. Research has shown that HIV is not dormant during this stage, but is very active in the lymph. The third stage is called “symptomatic HIV infection”, in this stage the immune s...

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...where it is inserted into the human DNA by the HIV enzyme integrates. Now, the HIV DNA is known as provirus and at this point the HIV affects the cell in such a way, that it begins to die which weakens the immune system HIV provirus may lie dormant within a cell for a long time. But when the cell becomes activated, it treats HIV genes in much the same way as human genes by first converting them into messenger RNA or mRNA using the human enzymes, then the messenger RNA will carry on the process outside the nucleus to blueprint the new HIV proteins and enzymes. Finally the last part of the HIV cycle is called “ Assembly, budding and Mutation”, the newly formed viral particles are put together to form a new virus, which will then mutate and start the cycle all over again. The end of the cycle will result in bursting of the human cell and the damage of the immune system.

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