Fouché and Holz (2015) explained why Freud believed, a parent’s behavior helps to shape the child’s personality, whether positively or negatively. During this stage, an infant learns to love, pleasure, and displeasure while being nourished through their mouths. Likewise, the Oral stage seems to have the greatest impression for healthy development and attachments, forming unhealthy habits (e.g., eating disorders and substance abuse), and becoming productive adults (Knight, 2014). According to Fouché and Holz (2015), Freud believed an infant is experiencing a disproportionate amount of pleasure or denial during the Oral stage he or she “Could develop pathological traits due to Libidinal fixation” (p. 406).
Latent Stage (6-12-years-old)
The Latent Stage is often considered the transitioning between childhood and preadolescence. According to Knight (2014), Freud believed the latent stage is one of the most transformative stages with biological, emotional and cognitive developments. Therefore, in the early stages of latency, sexual instincts are suppressed. As children progress through latency, he or she begins to think for themselves, behave and act more maturely and independently of adults. The latent stage is a unique time for children as puberty, social and family environments, school, peers, and self-identification takes center stage (Knight, 2014). He or she not only understand the difference between rewards and consequences but also how to manipulate adults, and visibly watch his or her body changes.
Knight (2014) explained, the latent stage is like that of a “Holding pattern for libidinal drives in the early years” (p. 213). However, the natural instinct for psychosexual desires arises with the bi...
... middle of paper ...
...rnoff (1976) surmised, whether the child achieved a balance between these two principles during late latency stage is significant and exhibited by “Four essential processes… Symbolizations, repressions, verbal communications, patterns of memory, and constancy of one’s behavior” (p.214) are apparent as he or she transforms into adulthood. Slowly the pleasure principles weaken, as the reality principle of his or her ego is “Tested by the id and superego” (p. 213); keeping in mind that the pleasure principle controls immediate needs urge, anger, and desires. Observations of adults controlled by the pleasure principle, negative behaviors can be seen in habitual criminal behaviors, rapists, and abusers. Opposite, and governed by the reality principles people stop and think about consequences and reward before he or she reacts, according to Fouché and Holz (2015).
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