How can a California city be a site of neocolonialism?
Although Gunder-Frank introduces his theories of underdevelopment with an initial emphasis on international relations, he then extends it to the relations between provinces within countries. Specifically, he focuses on how each provincial metropolis within a satellite country enacts the same power relations between its respective regions, to “suck capital or economic surplus out of its own satellites and to channel part o...
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...sources, emphasizing the role of local communities in leading this transition and ensuring its equitable adoption within their communities. Of course, communities will face challenges and limitations in such a process, which is a topic deserving an essay-length analysis unto itself.
Altogether, Chevron as a transnational corporation has wielded tremendous economic power as the main employer for Richmond, California-- a site of much environmental racism. However, this relation, which can be deemed both internal and neocolonial in its character, is neither unilateral nor unchallenged. Indeed, environmental justice organizations have fought and succeeded in battles against Chevron for political control of Richmond, and they continue to strive toward a more democratic, equitable, community-led energy system. Whether they will succeed in this endeavor, only time will tell.
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