Essay on The On Down Syndrome ( Ds )

Essay on The On Down Syndrome ( Ds )

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Down syndrome (DS), also called Trisomy 21, is a condition in which extra genetic material causes delays in the way a child develops, both mentally and physically. Normally, at the time of conception a baby inherits genetic information from its parents in the form of 46 chromosomes: 23 from the mother and 23 from the father. In most cases of Down syndrome, a child gets an extra chromosome 21 — for a total of 47 chromosomes instead of 46. It is this extra genetic material that causes the physical features and developmental delays associated with DS (kidshealth.org). Trisomy 21 is one of the most common human chromosomal aberrations, occurring in about one out of every eight hundred live births. Major characteristics of DS include: delayed mental development, short stature, stubby fingers and toes, protruding tongue, congenital heart defects, intestinal blockages, an unusual pattern of hand creases, and a distinctive slanting of the eyes, caused by a vertical fold (epicanthal fold) of skin near the nasal bridge that pulls and tilts the eyes slightly toward the nostrils (Arlene, 2014).
There are three types of Down syndrome: Trisomy 21, Mosaicism, and Translocation.
Trisomy 21 accounts for 95% of all cases and is caused by an error in cell division called "nondisjunction." This causes an embryo to have three copies of chromosome 21 instead of the usual two. Prior to or at conception, a pair of 21st chromosomes in either the sperm or the egg fails to separate. As the embryo develops, the extra chromosome is replicated in every cell of the body. Mosaicism accounts for 1% of all cases and occurs when nondisjunction of chromosome 21 takes place in one - but not all - of the initial cell divisions after fertilization. When this occurs, ...


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...re similarities rather than differences between families with and without a child with DS. Also, the study evidenced that having a child with a disability can actually provide families with a sense of hardiness and resilience, rather than having the opposite effect. Joosa and Berthelsen (2006) conducted a study on parenting a child with DS and identified the following categories from the mothers’ responses: the impact of having a
child with Down syndrome, family relationships, and acceptance. The mothers’ responses concerning their first reactions to having a child with DS were more negative and founded in shock and fear. However, as they raised their child, their attitudes seemed to shift to a more positive outlook as they realized the deeper meaning and satisfaction the child brought to their lives, along with their raised awareness of family and community support.

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