Notes on Virtue, Tradition and Animal Mating Essay

Notes on Virtue, Tradition and Animal Mating Essay

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1. In Rousseau’s criticism of the effects of modern civilization, one of his critical themes that evident is virtue. He believes the new arts and sciences give the appearance but not the reality of virtue, which he holds to be the true value of civilization. Rousseau seems to indicate that humans in a state of nature were moral and generally good, because in their original simplicity they could not deceive one another. The arts and sciences, then, challenge that basic morality, being created throughout history to disguise our evils. Rousseau then makes a comparison between Athens and Sparta. He admires the Spartans because they are virtuous in the literal sense of the word- manly. By comparison, the Athenians, who many think of as a model civilization, produced monuments, but only through corruption. He cites the example of Socrates as the virtuous and just man who despised the arts and sophisticated “sciences” of his day and was condemned by the Athenians. Rousseau determines that “ignorance is bliss,” in that nature made us ignorant to protect us from the dangers and evils our own minds can get us into, also goes-on to show that not only did Science and the arts come from corruptions, their effects go so far as to completely undermine society. While reading the thoughts of Rousseau there is a great amount of appeal to escape modern society and to return to rustic simplicity, but it’s not possible to return to that point in where man was just dependent on nature.

2. Anthony Giddens Invention of Tradition examines the general idea behind tradition which is when a new practice or object is introduced in a manner that implies a connection with the past that is not necessarily present. Gidden goes on to talk about tradition more an...


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...rors can cause allele to change randomly from generation to generation. The effect of chance in small populations can lead to genetic drift, changes in gene frequency due to random events. The smaller the population, the greater the chance of having random deviations from the average. Natural selection is the differential reproduction of genetically diverse individuals in a population that results in individuals whose fitness is greater leaving more offspring in the next generation than individuals of lesser fitness. From evolutionary change there are three primary sources, they are mutations are changes in the DNA but in many cases, evolutionary change is based on the increase of many mutations. Gene flow is any movement of genes from one population to another and is an important source of genetic variation. Sex can introduce new gene combinations into a population

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