Japanese surrendered to the Allies on August 15 1945, and the Cairo Declaration of December 1943 issued by the British and US leaders stated that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". The USSR accepted the Cairo agreement, but proposals made by the USA in 1945 led to the division of Korea into two military zones: the area south of the 38th parallel line under US occupation and the northern area under the Soviet control.
In 1948, after some quarrels over the type of state to be established in the Korean Peninsula, the two regions established two separated autonomous states. The North supported by the USSR established the communist Democratic People 's Republic of Korea (DPRK) in Pyongyang under Chairman Kim Il Sung. Meanwhile, the National Assembly in the South drew up a democratic Constitution for the Republic of Korea (ROK) in Seoul. Dr. Syng Man Rhee was elected the first President of the Republic of Korea, whose legitimacy was immediately recognized by the UN. On August 15, 1948, the Republic of Korea was inaugurated and the US occupation of the South came to an end.
With tensions simmering from increasing internal Korean political conflicts between the North and the South (largely as the by product of the Cold War), the North Koreans crossed the 38th parallel line and invaded the South on June 25th 1950, with a force of over 60,000 troops substantially equipped by the Soviet Union. North Korea rapidly advanced southwards and occupied most of South Korea within weeks. The UN troops under the lead of US mounted a collective defense to support South Korea, who successfully drove the invaders back and advanced to capture Pyongyang by October. However, the Peoples Rep...
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...Furthermore, the recent divergent views on North Korea policy between the United States and South Korea has been intensified by the fear that the pre-emptive strike policy may extend to North Korea, particularly in the wake of the nuclear revelation. The State of the Union address by Bush in 2002 lumping the North Korea with Iraq and Iran as an axis of evil, received about as much support in South Korea as in the North Korea. The speech aroused strong resentful anti-American sentiments in the public, viewing Washington’s recent hard line approaches with North Korea as divergent from their interests. Polls showed significant difference in popular views about the future of the Korean peninsula existed between the US and South Korea. In South Korea 73% considered the unification of the two Koreas likely in the near future compared to only 28% in the United States.
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