Non-State Political Violence: Occurrence and Justifications

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Political violence is action taken to achieve political goals that may include armed revolution, civil strife, terrorism, war or other such activities that could result in injury, loss of property or loss of life. Political violence often occurs as a result of groups or individuals believing that the current political systems or anti-democratic leadership, often being dictatorial in nature, will not respond to their political ambitions or demands, nor accept their political objectives or recognize their grievances. Formally organized groups, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), businesses and collectives of individual citizens are non-state actors, that being that they are not locally, nationally or internationally recognized legitimate civilian or military authorities. The Cotonou Agreement of 2000 defines non-state actors as being those parties belonging to the private sector, economic and social partners and civil society in all its forms according to national characteristics. Historical observation shows that nation states with political institutions that are not capable of, or that are resistant to recognizing and addressing societies issues and grievances are more likely to see political violence manifest as a result of disparity amongst the population. This essay will examine why non-state political violence occurs including root and trigger causes by looking at the motivations that inspire groups and individuals to resort to non-conforming behaviors that manifest as occurrences of non-state political violence. Using terrorism and Islamic militancy on the one side, and human rights and basic freedoms on the other as examples, it will look at these two primary kinds of political violence that are most prevalent in the world ... ... middle of paper ... ...jasmine-revolution Pinot, S, Wardlow, G, 'Political Violence', Australian Institute of Criminology, 1989, Retrieved 15 March 2011, Ridel, B, 'The real losers in Egypt's uprising', The Daily Best Online, 13 February 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011< http://www.thedailybeast.com/blogs-and-stories/2011-02-13/al-qaeda-absent-in-hosni-mubaraks-fall-and-egyptian-revolution/> The Cotonou Agreement, Partnership Agreement Between The Members of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States of The One Part, And The European Community And Its Member States, of The Other Part, Cotonou, Benin, June 2000. Wright, J, 'Mubarak Failed To Build Succession Framework', Reuters, 31 January 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011< http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/01/31/us-egypt-mubarak-succession-idUSTRE70U4KF20110131

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