New Treatments for Malaria Essay

New Treatments for Malaria Essay

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With roughly one million deaths per year, Malaria is not only a global health crisis, but also hinders further economic and cultural development in the 40% of the world’s population living in affected areas. Around 90% of Malaria cases, which persist in children and pregnant women, occur south of the Sahara in Africa. Although many research studies are developing in order to halt its spread, Malaria continues to grow in areas of high poverty rates, becoming one of the leading killers in the global health crisis.
The term malaria is derived from Medieval Italian, where the disease was originally called marsh fever because of its arise from swamps. One of the many theories of where these parasites originated include the idea that Plasmodium falciparum originated in gorillas; however, recorded history of the infection dates back to China in 2700 BC. As it spread, Malaria became the leading health issue for U.S. troops stationed in the South Pacific throughout World War II. Malaria, in the most severe cases, is a result of Plasmodium falciparum, which is a parasite that kills more humans than any other parasite. Although the parasite involved with Plasmodium falciparum has been surviving for nearly 100,000 years, it was not until 10,000 years ago the population of the parasite grew due to improvements in agriculture and developing human settlements. Malaria is also caused by four other species of Plasmodium, which, although not fatal, include Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium knowlesi. The largest amount of malaria infections are a result of Plasmodium vivax; however, Plasmodium falciparum generates the 90% of deaths due to malaria. Certain types of mosquitos transfer these infections to humans,...

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... region. In Europe, there were five countries accountable for the malaria infection in 2012, but was compromised of less than .02% of the cases worldwide. In 2010 it was predicted by the World Health Organization that there were 219 million cases of malaria, causing 660,000 deaths. Within each of these regions, the amount of deaths overall is uncertain, for in many rural areas data is unavailable. Prevention for these affected areas continues to be a challenge due to the parasites’ growing resistance against vaccination and the economic costs of prevention nets. Although common medicines are used for prevention, they are increasingly losing their effectiveness on the infection throughout Africa.
New treatments for malaria, such as artemisinin-based combination treatments, or ACTs, are becoming much more effective; however, cost far more than previous medicines.

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