Gayatri Spivak, (born Feb. 24, 1942, Calcutta, India), Spivak is a literary critic and theorist. She sometimes regarded as the “Third-World Woman”. She is best known for the article, (Can the Subaltern Speak?). It is considered a founding text of postcolonialism. She is also known for her translation of Jacques Derrida‘s Of Grammatology‟. This translation brought her to prominence. After this she carried out a series of historical studies and literary critiques of imperialism and feminism.
Her Areas of Interest: 19th- and 20th-century literature; Marxism; feminism; deconstruction; poststructuralism; globalization
Key words: Subaltern, post-colonialism studies, subaltern historiography, consciousness of subalternity, Subaltern historiography, deconstruction historiography.
• Democratization: is a code name for the political reconstruction entitled by the transformation of (efficient through inefficient to wild) state capitalism and their colonies to tributary economies of rationalized global financialization-carries with it the aura of civilizing mission accompanying transformative project from imperialism to development.
• Subaltern studies: considers the button layer of society, not necessarily put together by capital logic alone. This is its theoretical difference from Marxism. Its theoretical relationship to feminism is that subaltern is gendered, and hence needs to be studied with the help of feminist theory.
The term subaltern is derived from Antonio Gramsci, which stands for proletarian. It is “A code-word to deceive the prison censor to allow his manuscripts out the prison"(Morton 96). Also, Gramsci used the term subaltern to refer in particular to the unorganize...
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...nnection of post-colonial studies is to literary criticism rather than history and the social science. Subaltern studies has not pursed oral history as unmediated narrative, and its investigation and testimony have generally confined themselves to legal utterance.”
All in all, Spivak states that the term Subaltern is barrowed from Gramsci and that the definition has been modified to fit that of its present day meaning which comes from the South Asian Subaltern Studies group. She goes on to indicate that this is why these individuals were isolated from the cultural lines that produce the colonial subject. Additionally, she shows both the trajectory and the challenges facing the subaltern studies group if it tries to be both historian in this traditional sense as well as postcolonial voice, not only for the subaltern but for the subaltern studies group itself.
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