Based on the findings above, it can be clearly seen that resistance to change in the new scheme of SJSN manifested itself in different ways. The refusal of three labour confederations (KSPSI, KSBSI, and KSPI) on the invitation of the Parliament to discuss the BPJS bill indicated that the workers were reluctant to get involved in the drafting process of the new policy of social security system. On the one hand, Parliament has provided an opportunity for workers ' associations to discuss the social security policy. On the other side, the associations actually refused to attend the meeting. Moreover, the private hospitals were reluctance to join the JKN programme. These reactions confirm the research of Boohene and Williams (2012: 139) that unwillingness to participate in the changes is the form of resistance to change. The workers expressed the reluctance to change by rejecting the invitation to discuss the SJSN policy with the House of Representatives, and the private hospitals refused to participate in the JKN programme as a form to resist the new scheme in the SJSN.
The other forms of resistance shown by other workers ' associations such as threatened to come out of Jamsostek membership and held a demonstration. Also, the doctors strongly protested and threatened to close outpatient services. Then, the institutions which manage the social security in the pre-SJSN period argued that institutional transformation in the SJSN is not needed. These attitudes confirm the argument by Petrini and Hultman (1995: 15-16) that threatens and arguing are a part of the symptoms of active resistance.
After identifying the stakeholders ' reactions to changes in the new social security system in Indonesia, the dissertation confirmed th...
... middle of paper ...
... all social security contributions of labourers managed by Jamsostek and paid by their companies. While now, based on the Table 4.3 and as the mandate of the SJSN Law and the BPJS Law, this change requires the employees to pay a monthly fee. For this reason, workers refuse to participate in the new scheme of SJSN and demand the government to revise the policies telated to SJSN. This confirms the argument by Robbins and Judge (2013: 582) that economic factor is one reason for people to resist change. There is a tendency for some groups to resist change, if the new conditions interfere with their comfort (Mullins, 2010: 756). The workers feel more comfortable with the social security mechanism in the pre-SJSN, because it is more profitable in terms of economics. While in the SJSN period they are required to pay a monthly fee that is taken directly from their salary.
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