Neurons and Cells Essay

Neurons and Cells Essay

Length: 1893 words (5.4 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Physiological context

Previous to Henneman’s publishing his series of papers, there were three other major constituents that have been well researched and provided the foundations to this paper.

At the commencement of the 20th century, Sherrington was the first person to describe the minute gap between neurons connecting different cells it was termed the ‘synapse’. Over numerous years of studying Sherrington concluded his findings to a theory he stated that “the nervous system acts as a coordinator of various parts of the body and that reflexes are the simplest expressions of the action”(Issue, 2010).

A synapse is a connection for reflex arc function, the neurone theory and the synaptic transmission (Pearce, 2004). Upon this theory from Sherrington, Henneman was able to provide an extension to that presenting a theory of motor control, which is widely accepted by neurophysiologists. At that time Henneman looked beyond the individual units and sought to find answers to how the individual units act together to achieve harmonized control function in complex systems (Henneman, Somjen, & Carpenter, 1965).

Experimental approach

35 cats 9 (average weight 3.2kg) had a tracheal cannula inserted and decerebrated by a small opening in the skull. Fixing the distal left femur stabilized the pelvis; all the nerves innervating the left hind limb were cut except the ones innervating triceps surae. These muscles were dissected back to allow placements of electrodes.

The achillies tendon was freed and attached to a myograph, which consisted of a mechano-electric transducer (Grass model FT10 which fed into a Tektronix type Q unit). The transducer gave a linear signal of up to 10kg tension. The L7 to S1 ventral roots were expo...


... middle of paper ...


...Sir Charles Sherrington. 2014, from http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/Education-resources/Education-and-learning/Big-Picture/All-issues/Inside-the-brain/Historical-case-studies/WTS040933.htm
Pearce, J. M. (2004). Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (1857-1952) and the synapse. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 75(4), 544.
van Bolhuis, A. I., Holsheimer, J., & Savelberg, H. H. (2001). A nerve stimulation method to selectively recruit smaller motor-units in rat skeletal muscle. J Neurosci Methods, 107(1-2), 87-92.
Wakeling, J. M., Kaya, M., Temple, G. K., Johnston, I. A., & Herzog, W. (2002). Determining patterns of motor recruitment during locomotion. J Exp Biol, 205(Pt 3), 359-369.
Wakeling, J. M., Uehli, K., & Rozitis, A. I. (2006). Muscle fibre recruitment can respond to the mechanics of the muscle contraction. J R Soc Interface, 3(9), 533-544. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2006.0113

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay on Brain Cells that Read Minds

- ... This article relates to Chapter 8, How Cells reproduces. Cells are Cells are the smallest structural and functional units of living organisms (life). Cells were discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke another scientist in 1833 Robert Brown discovered and named the nucleus in a cell. The article reaches out to the different researches and professors on how the cells work in the Brain. The Brain is a unique organism. This course does provide background information to help any many ways understanding the article and the larger issues surrounding it....   [tags: monkeys, neurons, research]

Powerful Essays
621 words (1.8 pages)

Essay about Mullelr and Glial Cells

- ... It was hypothesized that the endfoot has the biggest impact on the flow of ions across the membrane, and therefore the cell’s resistance and conductance. So, the resistance of the cell was once again measured, but this time with the endfoot removed from the cell. It was expected that if the endfoot of the Muller cell was the region that had the biggest impact on resistance, with the endfoot removed the resistance of the cell would increase. Scientists also decided to cut a part of the cell above the endfoot, without removing the endfoot....   [tags: Brain, Endfoot, Cells]

Powerful Essays
609 words (1.7 pages)

Essay about How The Brain And Neurons Works

- This paper involves how the brain and neurons works. The target is to display the brain and neurons behavior by sending signals. The nervous system that sends it like a text message. This becomes clear on how we exam in the brain. The techniques show how the brain create in order for the nerves about 100 billion cells. Neurons in the brain may be the only fractions of an inch in length. How powerful the brain could be while controlling everything around in. When it’s sending it signals to different places, and the neurons have three types: afferent neurons, efferent neurons, and the interneurons....   [tags: Neuron, Nervous system, Brain, Synapse]

Powerful Essays
983 words (2.8 pages)

Essay on Use of Cells as Replacement Tissues and Organs

- Cultured cell from animal tissue can be used to replace dysfunctional and dead tissues and organs. In our daily lives, our cells are damaged and some of the damaged cells are repaired, but others are destroyed. The destroyed cells are forced into dysfunctional state where it can no longer be divide and undergo apoptosis (Sens Research Foundation, 2014). Some of the lost cells can be replaced by tissue-specific stem cell but due to aging process, the stem cell becomes less effective, losing cells progressively and they are increasingly become malfunctioning....   [tags: cultured cells from animal tissue]

Powerful Essays
991 words (2.8 pages)

Human Neurons And Its Effects On The Membrane Essay example

- Introduction: Typical human neurons have a resting membrane potential (Vm) of -65 mV due to the membrane’s high permeability for potassium (EK = -80 mV) and relative impermeability to sodium (ENa = +62 mV) as well as other background ions.1 When a change in sodium permeability occurs, sodium rushes into the cell and causes depolarization, a change from a negative Vm to one less negative.1 This could generate an action potential leading to neurotransmitter release, capable of signaling and coordinating motor responses....   [tags: Neuron, Action potential, Nervous system]

Powerful Essays
949 words (2.7 pages)

Relating Autism and Mirror Neurons Essays

- Whenever John and his mother drive to Rite Aid, he insists that they take the same route every single time. Whenever he steps into a new Rite Aid, he must walk around for five to ten minutes and when he would come home, he would draw a perfectly memorized layout of the floor plan of that particular drug store. Often times, it is difficult for John to make eye contact with others, and instead he may fidget, rock his body back and forth, or even hit his head against the wall. These abnormal behaviors can be attributed to the fact that John was diagnosed with a disorder called Autism at the age of three....   [tags: Autism Causes, Children, Brain]

Powerful Essays
1529 words (4.4 pages)

Physics of Neurons Essay

- The human nervous system is divided into two parts, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system, CNS, is just the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system, PNS, includes the nerves and neurons that extend outwards from CNS, to transmit information to your limbs and organs for example. Communication between your cells is extremely important, neurons are the messengers that relay information to and from your brain. Nerve cells generate electrical signals to transmit information....   [tags: physics neuron]

Powerful Essays
1389 words (4 pages)

Is Embryonic Stem Cells Research? Morally Wrong? Essay

- In the first ten days after conception, several hundred stem cells already multiplied and a baby will be formed. These tiny stem cells produced osteocystes, cardiac muscle cells, and neurons. They are the building block for all 260 types of cells in our bodies. Even through adulthood, stem cells are produced by our bodies to replace old cells. However, we do not produce enough stem cells to heal a spinal cord injury or fight cancerous cells. Through research, scientist can manipulate embryonic stem cells that would treat autoimmune diseases, heart diseases, spinal cord injuries, and much more....   [tags: Stem cell, Embryonic stem cell, Stem cells]

Powerful Essays
1880 words (5.4 pages)

Essay on Mirror Neurons

- Mirror neurons have been one of the most exciting neurological discoveries in recent years. Some researchers have even gone as far as comparing the discovery of mirror neurons to DNA. Mirror neurons may be analogous to other human sensory systems and some believe that mirror neurons represent their own unique sensory system. Mirror neurons fire when a person or animal performs certain activities as well as when they watch another perform the same activity (Winerman, 2005). Basically, they allow animals and humans to imitate and possibly even learn from others....   [tags: Neurology]

Powerful Essays
2935 words (8.4 pages)

Types Of Neurons That Help The Brain Communicate With The Central Nervous System

- The human brain is very complex is structure and function. What the brain does and how it plays a key part in everyday life functions such as moving, eating, and temperature control. The brain has four different lobes that function and perform differently from the other. The Adult human brain weighs about 3 lbs. containing about 85% water that consists of gelatin and over 100 billion neurons (Bostwick & Weber, 2013). The brain is responsible for controlling the bodies many functions and interactions with the outside world....   [tags: Brain, Nervous system, Neuron]

Powerful Essays
703 words (2 pages)