Moreover, smoking particularly adversely affects women's reproductive health, and smoke exposure on children has had detrimental and some sometimes fatal effects on children. Many studies have examined and outlined the adverse effects of maternal smoking on both the mother as well as on the baby and/or infant ( Hofhuis, de Jongste, & Merkus, 2003 & Woolbright 1994). Many states such as Alabama required documentation on birth certificates of tobacco use of mothers (Woolbright, 1994). Despite the Surgeon general's warning that maternal smoking may result in premature birth, fetal injury, or dangerously low birth rate, fifteen to thirty-seven percent of pregnant women still smoke (Hofhuis, de Jongste, & Merkus, 2003). Mothers who smoke often engage in other high risk behaviors that also affect the health of their infants; furthermore, factors including marital and socio-economic status as well as education attained influence the outcome of pregnancies as a result of increased susceptibility to smoking (Woolbright 1994, p. 330). Low birth weight remains the primary effect of maternal smoking, although the existing literature points to premature birth and infant death as a major consequence of it as well. Infant exposure to tobacco after birth puts the child at risk of death through respiratory diseases and Suddent Infant Death Syndrome (Woolbright, 1994). Hofhuis, de Jongste, and Merkus (2003) closely examined how smoking during pregnancy as well as passive smoking thereafter impacted the morbidity and mortality in children. Statistics point to other obstetric complications as a result of smoking which includes spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancies, premature rupture of membranes, and complications with the placenta. It hinder...
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- Moreover, smoking particularly adversely affects women's reproductive health, and smoke exposure on children has had detrimental and some sometimes fatal effects on children. Many studies have examined and outlined the adverse effects of maternal smoking on both the mother as well as on the baby and/or infant ( Hofhuis, de Jongste, & Merkus, 2003 & Woolbright 1994). Many states such as Alabama required documentation on birth certificates of tobacco use of mothers (Woolbright, 1994). Despite the Surgeon general's warning that maternal smoking may result in premature birth, fetal injury, or dangerously low birth rate, fifteen to thirty-seven percent of pregnant women still smoke (Hofhuis, de... [tags: suddent infant death, women]
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