Science coming from the latin word scientia, meaning “knowledge”, is a systematic structure that builds and organizes knowledge from testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The nature of scientific progress and the rationality of scientific change lies between Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn. The two influential philosophers of the 20th century had very different views of science which has caused countless debates because of it. One of them, which I believe is most interesting, was the idea of the scientific method and the idea of there even being one. The tradition understanding of the scientific method, described since the ancient Greeks, was to look at the world with a scientific eye and observe it with no other preconceived notions. They both, however, tried to explain the scientific method in their own unique way and their answers couldn’t be anymore different. While both Popper and Kuhn debated their idea of what a scientific claim should be, I believe Kuhn’s claim to be more beneficial to science because he understood the premises of science more clearly.
Karl Popper agrees with the idea of there being a scientific method. He believes that science begins with problems and that these problems occur when something differs from our expectations and reality of it. When this happens, Popper believes we must come to a solution or conjecture that tries to explain the new criteria. The conjecture will offer a hypothesis that, for example, might try to explain the world in a new way. Popper believes that a good conjecture will make bold moves and take risks by making novel predictions. It is then the scientist 's job to take this new solutions and test and submit them through criticism which Popper describes as refut...
... middle of paper ...
...lsified according to Popper. However, Kuhn explains that sometimes in experiments, humans mess up because no one can be can have the capability of being perfect all of the time. A scientist may instruct an experiment very carefully but there is typically a margin of error that is impossible to prevent. But how do we distinguish anomalies from counterexamples? The problem is being able to see when the theory has disagreed with the experiment enough or that we just made the wrong calibrations. Popper gives us no answer to this question while Kuhn explains it very thoroughly. I believe this to be the main factor of Kuhn’s claim being superior to Poppers. Kuhn understands the nature of science and the possibility for error and clearly explains that just because a claim doesn’t have the desired result, doesn’t implicate the result to completely override existing tests.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
The Natural Science, Writers Conduct Experiments, Make And Record Observations, And Report On Their Work
- In the natural sciences, writers conduct experiments, make and record observations, and report on their work in an effort to better understand the natural world. The natural sciences include a number of sub fields, including medicine, mathematics, physics and engineering, to name a few. Dr. James Mickle of North Carolina State University has been teaching in the sub field of biology since 1987. His research specializes in "whole-plant” taxonomy of fossil plants, conifer taxonomy and phylogeny, growth and development in fossil plant vegetative organs, and angiosperm fossil fruits taxonomy.... [tags: Scientific method, Science, Nature, Writing]
1104 words (3.2 pages)
- Thomas S. Kuhn’s, “The Nature of Necessity of Scientific Revolutions” want us to understand that the nature of the universe is evolving because people gain new knowledge in science. He addresses that as the universe is evolving human beings aquire new knowledge in science. In Kuhn’s work he mentions, “Simultaneously we have had to alter the fundamental structural elements of which the universe to which they apply is composed.” From this I understood that the universe is growing and human beings are expanding their knowledge and discovering new things, all thanks to the evolution of the universe.... [tags: Science, Scientific method, Scientific revolution]
776 words (2.2 pages)
- The nature of scientific reasoning Science is quite a phenomenon in itself. It cannot be studied wholly and drop down on papers. Various great scientists have made a great contribution in the field of science. But the main question that arises is the scientists studied each and every piece of the puzzle in detail or were they made a guess assumption about the topic. No one can give the perfect answer to this question. As a photographic plate is exposed to get an image, scientists expose themselves to work and they on the spur of the moment develop a new formula for atomic energy.... [tags: Scientific method, Science, Theory, Mathematics]
721 words (2.1 pages)
- The claim the title presents seems to be an obvious one when examined briefly. However, when examining the title closely the language used must be considered, specifically, the key word, “neutral”. A neutral question is an unbiased question that does not imply a specific answer, limits thinking, or guides into a predestined train of thought. When examined from this view, it can be said that all questions are asked with a purpose and demand an answer limited to a finite number, and therefore lose their neutrality.... [tags: Scientific method, Science, Nature, Question]
1746 words (5 pages)
- The first principle of natural selection remains applicable to the development of knowledge. It states that organisms produce offspring with different traits and these traits are inherited by future offspring. Correspondingly, knowledge within an area of knowledge (AOK) can be obtained using different ways of knowing (WOKs). For example, in the natural sciences, we develop knowledge through conducting experiments, which most notably employs sense perception and reason, as well as through reading from academic text, which most notably employs.... [tags: Science, Scientific method, Nature, Epistemology]
1417 words (4 pages)
- 1. “There is no such thing as a neutral question.” Evaluate the statement with reference to two areas of knowledge. As humans, we ask questions to satisfy our natural curiosity and inclination to gain knowledge. However, the type of questions we ask and the way in which we ask them can greatly affect the results or answers we get. My understanding of the word ‘neutral’ is that it implies impartiality or non-alignment therefore leading me to define a neutral question as one which when asked does not suggest that the questioner has an answer in mind or make it obvious what the expected answer is.... [tags: Scientific method, Science, Nature, Question]
1537 words (4.4 pages)
- In Jane Goodall’s “In the Forests of Gombe,” she travels to the beautiful forests of Gombe to explore chimpanzee. She watches over the chimpanzees that she has been observing for over twenty years. She also travels to Gombe to get away from the sad associations that reminded her about the death of her husband, Derek. During her trip, she experiences an epiphany when she is stuck under a tree in the forest. The epiphany confirmed her view on whether religion and science can coexist. There are two concepts of “windows in Jane Goodall’s “In the Forests of Gombe.” One of which is the scientific window.... [tags: Scientific method, Science, Theory, Nature]
1336 words (3.8 pages)
- Active experimentation and passive observation are, and have been, key processes in the development of knowledge for humankind. For many people, knowledge that has been gained through active experimentation is often perceived as clear, precise and reliable due to the official publishing and confirmation of hypotheses. Passive observation on the other hand, is when one does not experience the event personally but learns from others’ experiences - it is therefore perceived as being more subjective and dependant on what each individual takes and understands from that experience.... [tags: Scientific method, Science, Hypothesis, Nature]
1666 words (4.8 pages)
- What Nature of Science tenet does this activity address. This experiment addresses the tenet for scientists having different methods to approach their questions and problems. The students are shown an experiment and have to turn it into a science inquiry by asking their own questions and investigation Give a specific and detailed explanation about how you know the activity addresses the Nature of Science tenet you identified. You are analyzing the activity, not describing the activity. This experiment demonstrates different methods of problem solving because each group will conduct the original experiment and get the same answer.... [tags: Scientific method, Science, Theory, Hypothesis]
841 words (2.4 pages)
- Scientific realism is defined in terms of the truth of empirically proven scientific theories. A scientific realist is someone who thinks that all scientific theories aim to describe the universe as it is. Scientific realists believe the claim that there is true progress in science and whether the unobservable entities explained by science can really be taken as truth. The distinction between observable and unobservable entities is reflected by the human senses. For instance, a scientific realist believes in the existence of electrons because of empirical data despite not being able to see an electron with human senses.... [tags: Scientific method, Science, Philosophy of science]
1685 words (4.8 pages)