The supporters of multiple intelligence may not agree as to how many forms of intelligence there are but they do agree that intelligence is not a stand alone concept, that it is made up of a series of building blocks. Of the three theories to be explored in this paper Cattell’s two factor theory (1957) was the first, followed by Gardner and his theory of multiple intelligences (1983) and Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence is the most modern, being published in 2003.
Raymond Cattell distinguished that there were two general forms of intelligence; fluid intelligence and crystallised intelligence. The abilities that are associated with fluid intelligence are those associated with driving an individual’s ability to be...
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...igence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York, NY: Basic Books
Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple intelligences: New horizons, revised edition. New York, NY: Basic Books
Horn, J.L. (1965). Fluid and Crystallized intelligence: A factor analytic study of the structure among primary mental abilities. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Illinois.
Horn, J. L., & Cattell, R. B. (1967). Age differences in fluid and Crystallized intelligence. Acta Psychologica, 26, 107-129.
Paik, H. S. Washington University. (date not cited). One Intelligence or Many?--Alternative Approaches to Cognitive Abilities. Retrieved from: http://psych.utoronto.ca/users/reingold/courses/intelligence/cache/paik.html
Wilson, L. O. The Second Principle. (2014). Sterberg’s Views on Intelligence. Retrieved from: http://thesecondprinciple.com/optimal-learning/sternbergs-views-intelligence/
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