1. Which notions of rights are associated with the view that some rights are not invented by governments? And, what is the relation between natural law and natural rights?
The notions of human, natural and moral rights are associated with the view that some rights are not invented by governments; and the relationship between natural law and natural rights is that natural rights rest on laws or as Aquinas suggested that the natural laws are articulated expressions of natural rights.
2. What is the uniquely modern notion of rights that was articulated by
Grotius? And, For Hobbes, what does a "right of nature" involve?
According to Hugo Grotius, the uniquely modern notion of rights is described as the moral qualities attached to a person; and, for Hobbes, the “right of nature” involves a liberty to protect myself from attack in any possible way.
3. For Locke, what are the four principal rights that we have in the state of nature? In the state of nature, why can I kill a thief even if he doesn 't show any intention to kill me?
For Locke, the four principal rights that we have in the state of nature include life, health, liberty, and possessions. Moreover, in the state of nature, I can kill a thief even if he doesn 't show any intention to kill me because he has violated my right to life, declared war with me and there is no more room to reason with hi. That is, I must defend my rights in any way necessary.
4. What is Locke 's strict notion of slavery, and why does Locke oppose that form of slavery? What is Locke 's notion of drudgery? And, According to Fieser, how might we alter Locke 's theory to condemn drudgery?
Locke 's strict notion of slavery States that one cannot voluntarily give you th...
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...Explain the distinction between negative rights and positive rights.
Negative rights are the rights to be left alone including freedom to liberties and from harm; whereas, positive rights are the rights to other peoples help.
15. What is Fieser 's response to those who maintain that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights sets too high a standard? What is the interrelation between human rights and legal rights?
Fieser 's response to those who maintain that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights sets too high a standard is that all standards of morality are invalid since few people have perfect moral conduct. Moreover, the interrelation between human rights and legal rights is that our legal rights are drawn from our more basic intuitions about human rights. Likewise, our intuitions about human rights are drawn from the refined discussions of legal rights.
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