Systematics & Paleontology: The Brown Bear is classified under the order Carnivora. This order includes the placental mammals; most of which are land animals. Carnivora first appeared about 55 million years ago in the late Paleocene. The Order is split up traditionally into to suborders, the Pinnipedia and the Fissipedia. Although Fissipedia includes all land animals it is paraphyletic and therefor is not considered a valid taxon. Pinnipedia is interesting in the fact that it seems they have evolved from a bear-like land-living ancestor. Brown Bears are a part of the Family Ursida and more specifically the Genus Ursus. Brown Bears are thought to have evolved from the extinct species, Ursus Etruscus, which the oldest fossil record was found to date back 1.8 million years ago. Taxonomy research has shown that the Brown Bear is most closely related to the Polar Bear (Ursus Maritimus). Recent genetic studies ha...
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Hall, E. Raymond. 1984. Geographic Variation Among Brown and Grizzly Bears (Ursus Arctos)
in North America. Museum of Natural History. The University of Kansas. Lawrence, KS.
McLellan, B.N., Servheen, C. & Huber, D. 2008. Ursus arctos. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List
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