Before WW1, the Middle East was dominated by outside powers. Egypt was under British control and Persia was divided in to Russian and British spheres of influence. The Ottomans tried to promote change with the Tanzimat reforms which allowed some industrialization and modernization. However, in 1908, the Young Turks took over and attempted faster change. Unfortunately, the Young Turks sided with the Germans in WW1, so the Middle East was directly involved in the war. The Ottomans were the losers and their empire was broken up. The Arabs were disappointed because they had rebelled against Ottoman rule and sided with the Allies in an effort to attain an independent Arab nation. Rather, the British and French placed a mandate on the Arab regions of Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine. Under the Balfour declaration (1917), the British granted a Jewish tolerance in Palestine and alienated the Arabs in these territories in response to the persecution in Germany. Thus, the Jewish population rose by twenty percent and the World Zionist Organization was created to increase Jewish migration. In 1932, the conservative state of Saudi Arabia was created by Ibn Saud since he was able to rid the Ottomans out of the Arab peninsula. In 1938, the discovery of oil marked the beginning of economic modernization that only aided the elites of...
... middle of paper ...
...s that included satyagraha, or hold to the truth. This prevented bloody revolts like those of Egypt.. For example, when the British placed a high tax on salt, Gandhi led 50,000 people on a 200 mile march to the sea to make their own salt. Gandhi was taken to prison many times. Gandhi was able to work with Jawaharalal Nehru, a young lawyer to receive reforms from the British. The British finally granted a constitution in 1935 which was a beginning step towards independence.
Therefore, after WW1, both the Middle East and South Asia had nationalist movements. Modernization to rid foreign control of the Middle East was rare and had to be pushed by Westernization since politicians had to oppose to Muslim tradition. Rather, India rid foreign control by being united and staying true to their beliefs.
World Civilizations Textbook
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- With the recent developments in world politics, it has become clear that religion is soon gaining importance in the political sphere. One can observe through the spread of ISIS in the Middle East, the refugee crisis in Europe, religious nationalism in South Asia, political debates in the Americas and the countless terror attacks in the African continent are all tinged with an undercurrent of religious extremism. It is this political climate that has encouraged a recent spurt of debates on the relationship between religion, political identity and the context of the nation state in academic circles and media writ large.... [tags: Africa, Islam, Middle East, Religion]
777 words (2.2 pages)
- The Middle East has faced many problems in the wake of the 21st century, all of which center around a complex and intricate history that stems back to the early 7th century. However, events circulating around the mid-20th century, when Israel fought to be recognized as an independent state, can be traced as one of the causes for such high political tension between states in the Middle East. The years of political difficulties that followed help to shape how the Middle East works now. The late 1940s became the origin of this conflict of land ownership in Arabian territory and resulted in high tensions within its own area.... [tags: Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Middle East]
828 words (2.4 pages)
- The current Instability faced within the Middle East Sparks numerous Theories as to why the region is facing instability so furiously. Two of the leading theories state that either 1. the current geopolitical challenges faced are due to the unravelling of the agreements established during the first world war and that we are witnessing the failings of the crude border-lines drawn by those who placed them in the the Sykes - Picot Agreement. The latter theory states that the unravelling of the World War I agreement is not the cause of the challenges faced but rather nationalism, local politics, and other smaller scaled ordeals are the cause of the modern instability.... [tags: Middle East, Jordan, North Africa, Egypt]
925 words (2.6 pages)
- Peace in the Middle East There will never be peace in the Middle East. The idea of peace in a certain region is a silly notion. What region has truly ever known peace. Allow me to rephrase my thesis: There will never be peace in the Middle East as long as western powers intervene into Arab affairs. It is common knowledge that throughout history western powers have colonized, occupied, and exploited indigenous people in the name of national interest, national security, and manifest destiny. The Middle East is not exempt.... [tags: Middle East]
1981 words (5.7 pages)
- The True Beginning The Middle East has been considered the hub for the focal point of the world’s religions. However, the Middle East in itself has contributed to the innovation and evolution of all aspects in society since its beginning. Throughout its four regimes it has contributed culturally, ethnically and religiously in many methods. But, the early modern regime controlled itself and managed to blossom itself to the world religiously, ethnically, and culturally. The Middle East has flourished on its religious strengths and backgrounds.... [tags: Islam, Middle Ages, Middle East, Age of Discovery]
1388 words (4 pages)
- Will there or can there be peace in the Middle East. My answer may seem very contradictory but in my essay you will understand why. No there can't be any peace in the Middle East. Yes there will be peace in the Middle East. Peace will come only with Christ's return. The very origin of Arabs began with Ishmael. God had given Abraham a promise of a son. Yet instead of waiting on God Sarah grew impatient and gave her handmaid to her husband to bare him a child because she was barren. I guess she was trying to help God out.... [tags: Middle East]
1516 words (4.3 pages)
- The longest conventional war that the Middle East has witnessed in the 20th century was not a war between the East and the West, or Arab and Israeli nations as it may expected, but on the contrary between two anticolonial and nationalist Muslim nations, Iran and Iraq. The 1975 Algiers Accord which delineates the two states’ borders through the middle of the Shatt-al-Arab was always a dishonour to Saddam Hussein (Saddam). This political humiliation wafted him to see the Iranian Revolution as a new opportunity to prove his mettle by regaining what historically belongs to Iraq.... [tags: Iran, Iraq, Ruhollah Khomeini, Middle East]
1219 words (3.5 pages)
- ‘‘Utterances can be found, satisfying these conditions, yet such that, they do not ‘describe’ or ‘report’ or constate anything at all, are not ‘true or false’; and the uttering of a sentence is, or is part of the doing of an action, which again would not normally be described as sayingsomething.’’ The performative aspect of language conceptualised by Austin half a century ago, enables a more nuanced approach to the statement ‘The Middle East is an Invention’ than a simple examination whether it is true or false.... [tags: National Identity, Middle East]
1653 words (4.7 pages)
- Women and Education in the Middle East Religion and Sociocultural Changes in gender roles and expectations is helping give women in the Middle East and America the opportunity for equal education. When researching women’s education in the Middle East one can compare it to the early stages of education in the Colony American (although not as serve as the women in Middle Eastern Counties) Women in the Middle East still do not have the same opportunities as the men in their countries however since the 1970’s it is becoming a little more accepted for a women to receive and education.... [tags: Middle East, North Africa, Asia, Near East]
700 words (2 pages)
- There is no set definition for the area known as the Middle East since shifts in global power over the years have affected the topography. Now, however, the region can expansively be said to contain “the area from Libya E to Afghanistan, usually including Egypt, Sudan, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the other countries of the Arabian peninsula” (dictionary.com). This geographical definition can be said to contain both the ‘Near East’, ‘Middle East’, and even farther to the East and into Africa be described as the ‘Greater Middle East’, so the Middle East can only be loosely defined, and it is important to know that these countries are separate and do no... [tags: Middle East History]
861 words (2.5 pages)