National Security Concept of Estonia
The National Security Concept (NSC) sees international co-operation as the primary source of security, since “NATO serves as the cornerstone of European security and defence.” [p.4] Therefore, I will first analyse the NSC using the regional framework. In addition, I will use the sectoral approach to analyse the main areas affecting both internal and international security environment, which according to the NSC are “political, military, economic, technical, societal and environmental spheres." [p.5]
International and regional security
The NSC sees security as the “objective and outcome of international co-operation” [p.3]. Therefore, the means to achieve security is through co-operation with NATO and the European Union, as well as with other international partners. The involvement of the United States in the European security co-operation is a central element for the security of Estonia according to the NSC. It is in Estonia’s interest that the international authority of the EU is enhanced by a political dialogue between the EU and NATO. This co-operation is seen as a means to advance security in the regional European as well as on a global level and helps protect European and transatlantic interests.
Therefore, the NSC shows that Estonia is integrated to the European/Transatlantic security region. Although the importance of good bilateral relations with Russia is mentioned, much more emphasis is put on how Russia relates to EU and NATO. Good EU-Russia relations are seen as an insurance of European security and well-being in light of the increasing mutual interdependence. However, NATO-Russia relations are perceived as more problematic since NATO’s growing role is co...
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...t of the interconnectedness of the electronic communication systems with other critical services, insufficient protection of ICT systems or inadequate response capabilities increase the effect of threats originating from malfunction or attack. Cyber attacks are considered one of the most serious asymmetric threats in the NSC, along with terrorism and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Cyberspace may be used for inciting tension and conflicts within the society. [p.8] Since the challenges relating to cyber security do not fall under the purview of Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty and cyber attacks have not been categorised amongst conventionally regarded acts of war, cyber defence has remained a national responsibility: "Cyber security is reinforced through the implementation of national action plans and the renewal of legal regulation." [p.18]
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