The lack of effective vaccines against pathogens has stimulated the interest in the development of a topical microbicide. Microbicides are designed to inhibit HIV infection by directly inactivating the virus or interrupting the attachment of the virus to the host cells and replication thereof. To be able to develop an effective microbicide, one has to understand the means by which HIV infiltrates the genital mucosa, the role of dendritic cells, as well as the process of transportation of the virus to the lymph nodes (DU TOIT et. al., 2009).
HIV infects the CD4 cells in the body where the dendritic cells and the macrophages are the primary target for infection. These cells are present in the sub-epithelial layers of the vaginal- and cervical mucosa. HIV transmission occurs at the mucosal surface by means of body fluids, which penetrate the spuamous epithelium of the ectocervix and the columnar epithelium of the endocervix to reach the target cells. Fusion of the viral HIV envelope glycoprotein (gp120) interacts with the CD4-receptors, followed by interaction with CCR5 that initiates target cell fusion. Envelope fusion with the target cell is the first step of infection, where the viral RNA genome of the infectious cell is released into the target cell, where it undergoes reverse transcription followed by integration of pro-viral DNA into ...
... middle of paper ...
...omes Alive. PNAS, 102:12294-12295
Ø MALLIPEDDI, R. & ROHAN, L.C. 2010. Progress in Antiretroviral Drug Delivery Using Technology. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 5:533-547
Ø NDESENDO, V.M.K., PILLAY, V., CHOONARA, Y.E., BUCHMANN, E., BAYEVER, D.N. & MEYER, L.C.R. 2008. A Review of Current Intra-vaginal Drug Delivery Approaches Employed for the Prophylaxis of HIV/AIDS and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections. American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, 9:505-520
Ø VAN DE WIJGERT, J. & COGGINS, C. 2002. Microbicides to Prevent Heterosexual Transmission of HIV: Ten Years Down the Road, 2:1-10
Ø VANGELISTA, L., SECCHI, M., LIU, X.,BACHI, A., JIA, L., XU, Q. & LUSSO, P. 2010. Engineering of Lactobacillus jensenii To Secrete RANTES and a CCR5 Antagonist Analogue as Live HIV-1 Blockers. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy , 54:2994-3001
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Have you ever seen “Micro” cars driving down the road and wonder what lead to the development of such a seemingly odd vehicle. To truly understand the culture within Tata Motors and its interaction with the environment that lead to and power the Nano’s past success and future potential we need to look as some key cultural elements. This paper will take a closer look into the inspiration that drove the development of the Nano, as well as the price, quality and risks associated with its introduction to India’s market.... [tags: Tata Motors, Automotive industry, Tata Nano]
1023 words (2.9 pages)
- Apple, Inc. is one of the most well-known electronical companies in the world. Back in 1976, two men named Steven Jobs and Steven Wozniak, sold their computer creation, the Apple I. The company did not really take off until 1977, when the Apple II was created. Sales were increasing dramatically by 1978 due to the Apple Disk II, a floppy disk. As the years went on, Apple faced some financial troubles when Jobs was left the company, and then returned a few years later and brought the company out of trouble.... [tags: Apple Inc., IPod Nano, IPod, ITunes Store]
1094 words (3.1 pages)
- In last decades Nano technology attentioned as an applied technology. This technology is producing and controlling materials, tools and new systems in molecular-atomic size that created from combination of physics, chemistry and biology sciences. The new Nano size materials have new benefits and characteristics that did not had before. Nano technology have different kinds of operations, like: alimentary, drugs, Medical diagnosis, bio technology, electronics and computers, communication, transportation, energy, safety, health and environment, aero spacing and etc.... [tags: nano technology, molecular-atomic]
1305 words (3.7 pages)
- Nanoindenter Introduction:- Nanoindenter is basically used for securing the mechanical characteristics or properties at micro or nano-scale with the help of powerful technology known as Nanoindentation which is utilized for securing the parameters of material for example hardness, elastic modulus, viscous or plastic parameters with the help of experimental readings of penetration depth and indenter load. It must be note down that forces, those are involved, are normally in the range of micro newton or mili newton and depth will also be in the range of nanometers.... [tags: micro, nano scale, powerful technology]
1397 words (4 pages)
- Stigma and seroconversion are a few familiar words that come to mind when dealing with HIV/AIDS. These are a few processes that people go through when they are indentified as being HIV positive. This is when their life on whole comes into contrast. This is so because people often take things like sex for granted and it is because of this some can’t live a healthy lifestyle. Just imagine finding out that you are positive. How will society accept you. What about the stigmatization that one goes through.... [tags: HIV, AIDS]
1670 words (4.8 pages)
- The purpose of this paper was to become familiar with the Karrman Library at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville. The idea was to help students learn how to use the campus resources, and the best way to enforce this idea was to make it an assignment. Each student had the choice of choosing one of the two following options: “Bio-mimicks” or “Nanotechnology”. They were to write a report on what they had learned through the experience of retrieving information from the library, and how they used the information to learn about the subject they chose.... [tags: Technology Nano ]
1107 words (3.2 pages)
- Life-Threatening Interactions between Hiv-1 Protease Inhibitors and MDMA and -Hydroxybutrate (GHB) Introduction Purpose The goal of this assignment, is to read the health journal and with an unbiased appraisal, decide whether the information is conclusive enough based on solely the information given to possibly change one's health practices. Why Topic Selected In today’s college society, with the ever-growing number of sexually active students, HIV is quickly spreading.... [tags: STD, HIV, AIDS]
885 words (2.5 pages)
- HIV People who inherit only one copy of a mutated gene that has an effect on HIV's ability to enter CD4 T-helper cells appear to be substantially less likely to become infected with the virus, according to a new report by researchers at New York University School of Medicine in New York City and collaborators at other institutions. Such a protective effect, if proven, falls far short of completely safeguarding individuals who carry a single copy of the gene mutation from the risk of HIV infection.... [tags: HIV and AIDS]
420 words (1.2 pages)
- HIV Like the majority of the American population I have lived in a cloud of ignorance about the HIV and AIDS crisis. I have never know anyone close to me that has been infected with either of the two viruses. So when the option to research something to do with sexuality arouse I felt this would definitely further my education about a lethal killer that is roaming this earth. Since I knew next to nothing about this topic I will start from the begging of the disease and discuss where it's at now.... [tags: HIV and AIDS]
1857 words (5.3 pages)
- HIV Many eyebrows raised late in 1979, when the then unkown HIV virus raised its ugly head. The first two cases of the rare cancer, Karposis Sarcoma was diagnosed in two homosexual men in N>Y>C. About the same time in Los Angeles, several cases of the rare infection, Pneumocytis cariini pneumonia were being treated. Incidences of these strange diseases and infections were sky-rocketting around the country. The disease was effecting mostly young gay men in their 30's. There was no official name for the syndrome, but it was referred to by various names, GRID (gay related inmmune disease), Gay Cancer, and, "Community Acquired Syndrome".... [tags: STD, HIV, AIDS]
1024 words (2.9 pages)