Nano-microbicides are the Solution to the HIV Pandemic Essay

Nano-microbicides are the Solution to the HIV Pandemic Essay

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HIV spreads at alarming rates in developing countries, especially in resource pour settings and therefore the availability of microbicides would greatly empower women to protect themselves, as well as their partners against infection. The use of microbicides by women can easily be controlled and does not need the cooperation, consent or knowledge of their partners (DU TOIT et. al., 2009).
The lack of effective vaccines against pathogens has stimulated the interest in the development of a topical microbicide. Microbicides are designed to inhibit HIV infection by directly inactivating the virus or interrupting the attachment of the virus to the host cells and replication thereof. To be able to develop an effective microbicide, one has to understand the means by which HIV infiltrates the genital mucosa, the role of dendritic cells, as well as the process of transportation of the virus to the lymph nodes (DU TOIT et. al., 2009).
HIV infects the CD4 cells in the body where the dendritic cells and the macrophages are the primary target for infection. These cells are present in the sub-epithelial layers of the vaginal- and cervical mucosa. HIV transmission occurs at the mucosal surface by means of body fluids, which penetrate the spuamous epithelium of the ectocervix and the columnar epithelium of the endocervix to reach the target cells. Fusion of the viral HIV envelope glycoprotein (gp120) interacts with the CD4-receptors, followed by interaction with CCR5 that initiates target cell fusion. Envelope fusion with the target cell is the first step of infection, where the viral RNA genome of the infectious cell is released into the target cell, where it undergoes reverse transcription followed by integration of pro-viral DNA into ...

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...omes Alive. PNAS, 102:12294-12295
Ø MALLIPEDDI, R. & ROHAN, L.C. 2010. Progress in Antiretroviral Drug Delivery Using Technology. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 5:533-547
Ø NDESENDO, V.M.K., PILLAY, V., CHOONARA, Y.E., BUCHMANN, E., BAYEVER, D.N. & MEYER, L.C.R. 2008. A Review of Current Intra-vaginal Drug Delivery Approaches Employed for the Prophylaxis of HIV/AIDS and Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections. American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, 9:505-520
Ø VAN DE WIJGERT, J. & COGGINS, C. 2002. Microbicides to Prevent Heterosexual Transmission of HIV: Ten Years Down the Road, 2:1-10
Ø VANGELISTA, L., SECCHI, M., LIU, X.,BACHI, A., JIA, L., XU, Q. & LUSSO, P. 2010. Engineering of Lactobacillus jensenii To Secrete RANTES and a CCR5 Antagonist Analogue as Live HIV-1 Blockers. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy , 54:2994-3001

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