Compounding the manufacturing weakness of the Germans is that they were fighting the Allies on multiple fronts. The multiple fronts prevented the Germans from concentrating their naval power in the Atlantic. If the Germans had been able to concentrate their naval forces in the Atlantic they would have inflicted greater damage on the Allies merchant fleet. Instead, the Germans had to ensure a powerful naval presence was maintained in the Mediterranean Sea to combat the Allied naval powers massing in the Mediterranean and to protect their supply lines and lines of communication to Africa. The Allied land presence in Africa and the naval power in the Mediterranean Sea kept a portion of the German fleet occupied allowing a greater chance of the merchant ships successfully crossing the Atlantic to the important European theater. Even if the Germans had been able to win the Battle in the Mediterranean and been able to mass their naval fleet in the Atlantic they would not have been able to defeat the Allies in the Atlantic. The Allies were exploiting the improvements in technology and intelligence to avoid the U-boats. The Allies were locating the U-boats and avoiding them. The Germans were searching blindly for the Allied merchant ships. The Germans were not interested in employing technological advances on their U-boats and felt their U-boat wolfpack strategy would pay enough dividends. Compounding the Germans’ lack of a comprehensive strategy in the Atlantic is the sheer size of the ocean. For the Germans to be successful in the Atlantic they had to patrol from the Caribbean up to Norway. The Atlantic Ocean was a geographic dimension too large for the size of the German fleet in the Atlantic. ...
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...Germans’ fighting a two-front war were vital strategic factors in the outcome of the battle. These strategic factors allowed the Allies to sustain the prolonged supply effort across the Atlantic and to adapt their operations based on lessons learned. The Unites States was afforded the time to understand the importance of developing a unity of effort against the German U-boats. With this time, the creation of the Tenth Fleet and the British intelligence efforts to break the German U-boat code were key operational factors leading to the Allied victory. The Battle of the Atlantic during World War II was a prolonged battle for control of the sea. The key strategic and operational factors discussed above allowed the Allies to successful complete the mission of sustaining the war effort in Europe. Therefore, the Allies were able to declare victory in the Atlantic.
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