Essay about Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

Essay about Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

Length: 1781 words (5.1 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Physiology
In order to successfully understand TB, its physiology must be understood. TB is brought on by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, “a strain with limited genetic diversity and no significant animal or environmental reservoir,” (Cook, et al., 2009, p. 41). Even without a known site where the bacteria are most prevalent, the bacteria can still be dangerous in small numbers as the bacteria are distinctly adept at and avoiding the immune systems of its host (p. 41). “M. tuberculosis is also able to adapt to very different intracellular environments including: phagosomes in macrophages and dendritic cells, granulomas and even fat cells,” (p. 41).
Phagosomes are vesicles which form around pathogens and ultimately destroy said pathogens (Tessema, Koets, & Rutten, 2011, p. 157). In order to fully achieve its goal of eliminating the pathogen a phagosome must fuse with a lysosome. Once fused, enzymes contained within the lysosome work at digesting/eliminating the pathogens contained within the phagosome (pp. 157-158). M. tuberculosis is skilled at preventing this fusion allowing the bacteria to successfully avoid detection by the immune system (pp. 159-160).
Granulomas are collections of macrophages used to separate the body from foreign particles (p. 158). Granulomas containing M. tuberculosis have necrosis, meaning that the cell will eat away and degrade the surrounding tissues (p. 158). The TB disease is extremely dangerous and fatal if left untreated, and with the various drug-resistant strains in the world the need for worldwide awareness of TB is vital.
Treatments
In order to determine if someone has TB one can take a TB skin test or a blood test. These are preliminary tests, so if someone tests positive for TB then a...


... middle of paper ...


... y Microbiología Clínica, 57-62.
Sharma, S., & Mohan, A. (2004). Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Indian J Med Res, 354-376.
Society, A. T., CDC, & America, I. D. (2003). Treatment of Tuberculosis. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1-74.
Tessema, M., Koets, A., & Rutten, V. (2011). Bacteriology: Review paratuberculosis: How does mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis resist intracellular degradation? Veterinary Quarterly, 153-162.
Waddington, K. (2004). To Stamp Out “So Terrible a Malady”: Bovine Tuberculosis and Tuberculin Testing in Britain, 1890–1939. Medical History, 29-48.
WHO. (2002, August). World Health Organization. Retrieved April 15, 2014
Zager, E. M., & McNerney, R. (2008). Mutidrug-resistant tuberculosis. BMC Infectious Diseases, 1-5.
Zaman, K. (2010). Tuberculosis: A Global Health Problem. Jornal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 111-113.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

The Tuberculosis ( M. Tb Essays

- Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M. tb) is a bacterial pathogen belonging to the family Mycobacteriaceae. The bacterium is extremely aerobic, requiring a great deal of oxygen to survive; consequently, M. tb infects the respiratory tract, most prominently affecting the lungs, once it enters a new host. Currently, humans are the only known hosts for M. tb, which spreads from the infected to the non-infected through droplets in the air (Mycobacterium Tuberculosis 2016). Directly following initial infection, M....   [tags: Tuberculosis, Bacteria, Natural selection]

Powerful Essays
785 words (2.2 pages)

MDR Tuberculosis in Georgia: Problem in Prevention and Control Essay

- In response to your request, I am providing recommendations concerning MDR-TB prevention and control in Georgia. The problem of MDR-TB increased in the past decade despite relative success in TB prevention, early detection and introduction of new treatment methods. The document will pinpoint the main reasons behind rise in MDR-TB cases, and provide situation analysis based on existing statistical data and research. It will also give recommendations on necessary measures to decrease MDR-TB cases in Georgia and avoid public health risks and financial burden related to MDR-TB treatment and spreading infection in society....   [tags: Tuberculosis, Health, Risks, Factors]

Powerful Essays
1046 words (3 pages)

Tuberculosis : A Causative Agent Essay example

- What is mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a causative agent that leads to an infectious bacterial disease, which in most cases is life threatening, tuberculosis. The mycobacterial species are “...nonmotile rod-shaped bacteria with waxy outer coats…” (Lynn, 2011) that are obligate aerobes, which do not form spores. Being aerobic, they are always found in the well-aerated upper lobes of the lungs (Todar, 2008). Many non pathogenic mycobacteria are components of the normal flora of humans, found most often in dry and oily locales....   [tags: Tuberculosis, Bacteria, Infectious disease]

Powerful Essays
728 words (2.1 pages)

The Rise Of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Essay

- The Rise of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Did you know that the development of antibiotics has dropped to such a slow pace in recent years that some bacteria may recapture superiority over antibiotics when they cause infections. As a matter of fact, 450,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) were detected in 2012.6 92 countries have also reported that they have identified extensively drug- resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB).6 These are problematic stats because these bacteria’s cannot be treated very easily, treatments are longer and also less effective due to the fact that these are resistant to many antibiotics....   [tags: Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance, Penicillin]

Powerful Essays
2041 words (5.8 pages)

Tuberculosis Essay

- Tuberculosis is one of the major causes of death from many infectious diseases (3). Out of 9 million people who are infected with mycobacteria, about 2 million deaths occur from tuberculosis every year (3). Unfortunately, the prevalence of tuberculosis is in a continuous increase due to increased number of Human immunodeificnecy virus (HIV) patients, bacterial resistance to anti-tuberculous drugs, and growing number of recreational drug users (3). The pathogen responsible for bacterial infection, potentially causing tuberculosis, is mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) (2)....   [tags: Disease]

Powerful Essays
2588 words (7.4 pages)

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Essay

- Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria “Antibiotics" is the name given to the group of chemicals, particularly in medicine, that stop or inhibit the growth of, microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, and parasites, or that kill the microorganism. They are, however, completely ineffective against viruses. There are two kinds of antibiotics, namely; bactericides, which interfere with the cell wall or contents of the bacteria, thereby killing it, and bacteriostatics, which prevent the bacteria from reproducing....   [tags: Antibiotics, Chemicals, Medicine]

Powerful Essays
1122 words (3.2 pages)

Essay about Paul Farmer, Partners in Health and Tuberculosis

- Paul Farmer was born in Massachusetts in 1959, went to Harvard Medical School, became a doctor, and ended up living and working in Haiti. He co-founded an organization in 1987 called Partners in Health (PIH). The philosophy behind the organization is that everyone, no matter who or where has a right to health care. Paul Farmer and PIH have already made amazing progress in Haiti, Peru, and several other countries, helping people get the care they need. PIH’s website lists a detailed history of they and Farmer’s work in Haiti....   [tags: Health Care]

Powerful Essays
1535 words (4.4 pages)

Essay about The Increase of Drug-Resistant Microbes

- The increase of drug-resistant microbes in the last two decades is fighting against current efforts to battle infectious diseases. By being more resistive to current medication, sicknesses which used to be considered under control are becoming new threats which also make other incurable diseases far more dangerous: TB, pneumonia, malaria, cholera and HIV. Even though antibiotic resistance affects both industrialized and developing countries, its effect is far worse on developing countries. The problem is that the price gap between cheap first line medications and second line medication is vast which means that a large part of the population don’t have access to original medications....   [tags: Diseases, SuperBugs]

Powerful Essays
1600 words (4.6 pages)

The Development of the Tuberculosis Vaccine Essay

- Introduction: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of mortality in all over the world. The infection caused by M. tuberculosis is commonly known as tuberculosis or TB. According to a CDC report, in 2012, approximately nine million patients were infected globally with TB and the fatality was around 1.3 million1. It is estimated that nearly one third of the global population is infected with TB. M. tuberculosis was first described by Robert Koch in the year 1882 as the “tubercle bacillus”....   [tags: medicine, health, research]

Powerful Essays
1804 words (5.2 pages)

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Essay

- Bacteria refer to a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms (microscopic organisms that lack a membrane bound nucleus). They are very abundant in nature. For example, according to Christian Nordqvist (2009), a gram of soil can contain up to forty million bacterial cells. Bacterial microorganisms can be found almost anywhere and can adjust extremely well to surrounding conditions. Not all bacteria are harmful and even play an important role in the recycling of nutrients. By recycling nutrients bacteria become a valuable resource for the human body....   [tags: bacteria, probiotics, pathogenic]

Powerful Essays
668 words (1.9 pages)