Despite all of these hardships that Muslims faced upon the death of Muhammad, the Muslim community was able to survive and thrive. Because Muhammad had attracted a group of devoted followers when he began preaching in Mecca, they formed the core community that would carry on Islam after his death. These followers were the first few to convert to Islam and became the first of the Caliphates that would expand the rule of Islam through the Arabian Peninsula. With the massive and rapid expansion of Islam through Arabia, Islam did not remain an established faith within all communities until `Abd al-Malik built the Dome of the Rock in the holy city of Jerusalem. This announced their presence amongst all faiths and set Islam as a lasting pillar and was the first structure to preserve the text of the Qur`an. The Qur`an formed a large role in the Muslim community and its co...
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...give consensus to the Qur’anic text. By “order[ing] that the other codices should be burned or destroyed and that the ‘codex of Zayd’ (‘`Uthmanic codex’) should be preserved” he tried to establish a ‘fixed text’ (Gilliot 45). This lead to the teachings of God through Muhammad being continually passed onto all Muslims and new converts keeping a unified notion of the ideals of Islam throughout all.
Islam began with the Prophethood of Muhammad and his small following and led to the huge expansion of Islam after his death. This expansion remained sustainable through the leadership and unifying authority of the caliphs that lead to the building of the Dome of the Rock and the preservation and expansion of the Qur`anic text. The establishment of a fixed text, their presence as a religion and their authority over Arabia allowed for Islamic civilization to begin to develop.
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