The Motivation for Nature Based Tourism

The Motivation for Nature Based Tourism

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Nature based tourism is one of the growing form of tourism today. Tourism which is based on nature is becoming big international industry with major economic, social and environmental effect in local and global scale. (Bukley– Pickering– Waver, 2003 1). Meyer- Arendt, 2004 cited in (Olafsdottir 2013, 127) explain that nature based tourism history has relatively short if we compare with other form of tourism example cultural tourism and traditional tourism. At the beginning tourism and travel was the journey to see the seven wonders of the world. Tourism scenario has changed and nowadays there are different reasons for travelling as tourists. In this regard Pearce, Morrison and Rutledge (1998 as cited Luo- Deng, 393) found that out of 10 significant motives of tourists, 4 were related to nature based tourism and they were motive to experience the environment, rest and relax in pleasant settings, motive to pursue special interests and skills, and to be healthy and fit. In nature based tourism, the destination gets priority because of its remoteness, cultural identity, and environment. (Johnston 1990 as cited in Silverberg-Backman-backman 20).

Nature is very important in nature tourism because the nature plays significant role in tourism as it provides motivation to travel and also is the place where tourism activities happens (Edward – Benediktsson 2013, 190). This reflects that together with the natural beauty of the destinations in nature based tourism, the human aspects like culture and hospitality of the people residing in destination place also plays a significant role. Hence, it is important to select destination based on its location and cultural identity of the people. The book review by Buckley (2000) shows that in addition to the natural aspect, the economic and social activities connected to tourism at the destination place should also be considered for successful nature based tourism.
There are so many definition about nature based tourism and most of them are talking about nature, preservation and visitors. One of the definition define nature based tourism as tourism that consists of traveling without destroy or contaminated the existing nature (Boo 1990, 2). Nature Based tourism has been defined by Hall¬–Weiler as :
a broad spectrum of touristic activities, often commercialized and involving an interaction with the natural environment away from the participant’s home range (Hall¬–Weiler 1992, 143).

According to Goodwin Nature based tourism includes all tourism forms which

Nature-based, tourism encompasses all forms of tourism - mass tourism, adventure tourism, low-impact tourism, ecotourism - which use natural resources in a wild or undeveloped form- including species, habitat, landscape, scenery and salt and fresh-water features (Goodwin 1996, 287).

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Mckercher (1998, 1) agree above and add nature based tourism include of adventure tourism, ecotourism, responsible tourism and many other form of non-mass tourism. Therefore generally tourism featuring nature is called Nature based tourism but in the broad sense there are different types of nature based tourism such as nature tourism, wilderness tourism, rural tourism, green tourism, cultural tourism, sustainable tourism, jungle tourism, ecotourism etc. (Guidelines for tourism in park and protected area of East Asia 2001, 7). However one of the easy concept about nature base tourism was explain by Metsähallitus a Finnish enterprise which administers more than 12 million - owned land and water areas. Metsähallitus (2010) describe nature base tourism principle is to increase knowledge about the area, use the resource sustainably and avoid degradation. So nature based tourism is not just about travelling in nature it is also about knowing about the nature and preserving it.

The given table 1's activities of tourism can be used as a nature based tourism so nature based tourism covers big area and activities. Nature based tourism has different kind of activities i.e. Adventure, water based, fitness, viewing, snow and ice related and outdoor. Adventure activities are hiking, mountain climbing, rock climbing etc. Rafting, boating, swimming, kayaking etc comes under water based nature tourism activities. Biking and walking in nature area can be categorized under fitness activities of nature based tourism. Wildlife viewing, bird watching, sightseeing, skiing, camping are also activities of nature based tourism. These all actives are based on nature (Mirzaei 2013).

The given table 1 shows different scope of nature based tourism. As mention earlier there are different form of Nature based tourism which include nature oriented tourism, nature travel, wildlife tourism, ecotourism, ethical tourism, environmental pilgrimage tourism, sustainable tourism, adventure tourism etc.

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